What Is Medical Science? How To Become a Medical Scientist?

Medical science is a branch of science that deals with diagnosing, treating, and preventing diseases. It covers a wide range of subjects that attempt to understand the workings of the human body. 

A Medical Scientist is a professional who researches and develops medical innovations to improve human lives. These individuals are the backbone of medical science. They must constantly find better ways to enhance available drugs, medical and surgical techniques and drug delivery systems. This blog will discuss medical science and the various career perspectives in detail. 

What Is Medical Science?

Medical science aims at explaining how the human body works. Knowing how the human body works is a fundamental necessity for medical professionals. A practitioner must have this fundamental knowledge to diagnose any disease. 

The various areas of specialisation of medical science are listed here:

Area of specialisation  Study 
Cardiology  Dealing with heart disorders 
Aetiology  Study of the cause of a disease 
Dentistry  Deals with disorders, diseases and conditions of the oral cavity 
Embryology  Study of embryos 
ENT Treatment of any disease or disorder in the ear, nose and throat
Pathology  Diagnosis and study of disease
Paediatrics  Deal with illnesses concerning children
Radiology  Treatment in which radiation is used when treating an illness 
Cytology  Study of the formation, structure and functioning of cells
Immunology  Deals with the antigenic challenge response of an organism 
Oncology  Deals with the study and treatment of different types of cancer
Neurology  Deals with the nervous system and the diseases affecting it
Urology  Study of the urinary system diseases

What Is a Medical Scientist?

A professional whose responsibility is to research to discover treatments for diseases or to give insight into how to improve human health is a Medical Scientist. Listed below are the responsibilities of this medical professional:

  • Testing and designing medical equipment and technology. 
  • Developing research processes and protocols.
  • Promoting healthy practices for patients by collaborating with health organisations and medical companies.
  • Examining the medical samples using specialised instruments like microscopes. 
  • Discover new vaccines/drugs to enhance the treatment of a disease. 
  • Finding ways of mass manufacturing drugs cost-efficiently for ordinary people to afford them.
  • Sanitising the laboratories before, during and after experiments. 

Medical Scientists can work for government health organisations, private medical companies, university laboratories and hospital networks. 

Professionals working for private medical companies also work in clinical drug trials to test if their company’s drugs work as intended. They use these findings to make any necessary adjustments to the drugs or enumerate the benefits that patients get. 

How To Become a Medical Scientist

If you want to become a Medical Scientist, follow the steps below to achieve your career goals. 

1. Get a bachelor’s degree

Most employers look for candidates who at least have a bachelor’s degree. When choosing your degree, consider the specific area you want to work in. You can get a bachelor’s degree in biology, chemistry or mathematics. Admission into bachelor’s degree programmes is based on class 12 marks or the candidate’s performance in the college entrance exam. 

All these majors will offer benefits depending on one’s specific interest in medical research. For candidates unsure which medical area to research, consider choosing a general life science subject related to health care, the medical industry or any related field. 

2. Pursue a master’s degree 

On completion of the bachelor’s degree, most prospective Medical Scientists choose to continue pursuing advanced degrees. Getting a master’s degree from a well-recognised institution or college can help get the necessary exposure. 

To get admitted to some of the most well-established colleges, candidates need to clear entrance exams conducted by these colleges. Here are some of the top entrance exams conducted in India:

  • AIIMS (All India Institue of Medical Sciences)
  • MHT CET (Maharashtra Health Science and Technical Common Entrance Exam) 
  • JIPMER (Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research) 
  • PGIMER (Post Graduate Institute of Medical Educal and Research) 

3. Get a PhD

Candidates can pursue a medical-related doctoral programme after completing their PG courses. Doctoral programmes help students gain critical analytical and research skills. Additionally, medical schools offer students in-depth knowledge of medical operations from a physician’s perspective. 

Some individuals pursue a master’s degree before going for education in medical school. In contrast, some colleges and universities offer dual-degree programmes where one can pursue both degrees. Choosing this path will help you gain scientific skills from doctoral studies and research practice skills from the medical degree.

4. Look for opportunities to gain practical experience

Whichever route you choose for your higher education, you must look for practical experience opportunities. Practical experience is necessary as it helps you gain industry experience before landing your first Medical Scientist role. 

Doctoral students can gain this experience from medical research internships, and medical students can get it through their clinical experiences. These opportunities allow candidates to gain laboratory work experience, work with mentors and get professional recommendations. 

5. Get medical licensure or certifications 

Getting medical licensure or certifications is not mandatory for all Medical Scientist roles. Getting a physician’s license might be necessary for candidates who want to conduct research for clinical trials and suggest medication to participants. This is necessary to ensure the safety of the participants participating in clinical trials. 

Certification such as first aid and cardiovascular resuscitation can also be beneficial for ensuring safety during medical experiments. 

6. Network with professionals in the field

Try and network with medical employees throughout your educational and practical experiences. These relationships can help you learn about specific medical areas from experts and allow you to seek a mentor or look for potential career paths. 

One of the best ways of networking is to conduct research studies, publish them or present them at any conference. Conferences are great for meeting people having similar research interests.  

7. Sit for interviews 

Interviewing for Medical Scientist positions is necessary to find the most suitable job for you. Highlight your relevant skills, technical knowledge and any experiences you might have gained. Talking about these during the interview is necessary as it lets you articulate how you will be an asset to the company or that particular organisation. 

Check out our free courses to get an edge over the competition.

Skills Necessary for a Medical Scientist 

Here are some of the skills that candidates need to become successful Medical Scientists: 

  • Research 

The primary duty of a Medical Scientist is to conduct medical-related research. These professionals’ studies could be disease-related, drug-specific or concerned with the best practices for human health. Proper research skills can help individuals formulate hypotheses and discover potential solutions for health issues. 

  • Critical thinking 

Having critical thinking skills is necessary when conducting medical experiments and research. With these skills, Medical Scientists will understand how to choose the correct method for solving any particular problem. 

  • Observation 

Medical Scientists must have observational skills. These skills aid in conducting drug trials for new medication where observing the patient and studying the reactions is necessary. 

Strong attention to detail is an excellent way to improve observational skills. Several tasks that these professionals perform are time-bound. With proper attention to detail and coordination, researchers can conduct experiments promptly. 

  • Problem-solving 

A Medical Scientist‘s primary responsibility is finding solutions to health-related issues. With adequate problem-solving skills, Medical Scientists can find the root cause of any complex ailment or disease. They are responsible for performing adequate experiments and finding solutions to these ailments. 

  • Analysis 

With proper analysis, Medical Scientists can evaluate the research results and develop logical inferences. Additionally, with this skill, one can make informed decisions while planning protocols for research and eliminate all potential biases. 

  • Communication 

Medical Scientists have to communicate their research findings to others. Hence, possessing proper communication skills is a must to convey what they want effectively. Medical Scientists generally employ verbal and written communication skills to share their insights and data from their experimental findings. They also communicate with other scientists to delegate and coordinate tasks. 

  • Organisation 

Medical Scientists have to keep a record of all their experimental findings. They can maintain research records and confidential medical information about experiment participants with adequate organisational skills. Keeping these records organised can help Medical Scientists when presenting information to the stakeholders or referring back to them for future experiments. 

Specialisations for Medical Scientists 

Medical science has many areas you can explore and work in according to your interests. Here are some branches of medical science that you can pursue:

  • Biochemistry: Biochemistry is a combination of Biology and Chemistry. Biochemists study to understand how various biological molecules trigger living cell processes. 
  • Biostatistics: Biostatistics deals with applying and developing statistical processes and methods in different biological phenomena for analysis and understanding. These professionals are responsible for conducting experiments, documenting them, analysing the outcome and interpreting the findings. 
  • Biomedical Engineering: This is an integrated multidisciplinary specialisation. These professionals are responsible for applying design concepts and engineering principles to medicinal and healthcare processes. This helps them enhance various treatment procedures and drug efficacy. 
  • Immunology: It is a pivotal branch of Biology that involves studying the immune system in all organisms. Immunology is applicable in many medical disciplines, such as Oncology, Psychiatry, Virology, Rheumatology, Parasitology, Bacteriology, Dermatology, and organ transplant. 
  • Computational Biology and Bioinformatics: It is an interdisciplinary field of study. It is based on developing and applying computational methods such as mathematical modelling, analytical methods and simulation for analysing extensive biological data collection. 
  • Molecular Cancer Biology: This branch studies complex regulatory mechanisms influencing or impacting mammalian cell growth. Scientists in this field must properly understand Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Genomics, Genetics, Pharmacology and Cell Biology. They are responsible for understanding any underlying growth regulation and the transition during tumour formation, progression and metastasis. 
  • Toxicology and Environmental Health: This subject studies and analyses the adverse effects of various biological, chemical and physical agents on the organisms living in an ecosystem. Scientists working in this field study, analyse and understand the impact of toxic agents on a molecular and physiological level. 
  • Medical Physics: This subject involves the application of physical theories, concepts and methods in the fields of healthcare and medicine. Medical Physicists are needed in the healthcare industry to apply their understanding of Physics to innovate new medical technologies and treatments. 
  • Neurobiology: Neurobiology is a subdiscipline of Neuroscience and Biology that involves studying the nervous system, including the brain, nerves and spinal cord. It looks at the neurons and their organisation, which influences human behaviour and helps process information. 


Humans are highly dependent on medical science for their survival. Medical science is constantly evolving, and with the advancement of technology, it is reaching new heights daily. Medical Scientists are responsible for studying, analysing and developing medical solutions to diseases and ailments, helping to better people’s lives. 

If you want to pursue a career in medical science, there are various areas you can choose from. Look for the most appropriate course to kickstart your medical science career


What is the salary of a Medical Scientist in India?

The average base salary of a Medical Scientist working in India is Rs. 10,08,532 per annum.

Which companies do Medical Scientists work for?

As a Medical Scientist, you can work for the following companies: Pharmaceutical companies Medical research facilities Consulting firms involved in drug discovery, medical research and drug delivery research.

What soft skills should a Medical Scientist have?

Medical Scientists should have the following soft skills: Working well under pressure Time management Attention to detail Good written and verbal communication

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