In this Article, you will learn 15 exciting SQL project ideas & topics for beginners.
- Library Management System
- Centralized College Database
- Student Database Management
- Online Retail Application Database
- Inventory Control Management
- Hospital Management System
- Railway System Database
- Payroll Management System
- An SMS-based Remote Server Monitoring System
- Blood Donation Database
- Art Gallery Management Database
- Cooking Recipe Portal
- Carbon Emissions Calculator
- A Voice-based Transport Enquiry System
- Database Interfacing for LabVIEW Robotic Control
Read more to know each in detail.
The modern business world has experienced an upsurge in data-driven decision making in the last few years. And extracting and filtering out crucial information from data silos is made easy with programming languages like SQL. One of the multiple reasons to learn SQL. Moreover, SQL databases are used in almost every website or web application today. As computer science students or aspiring developers, you are always on the lookout for easy-to-implement SQL project ideas. Finding unique and impressive sql projects for beginners with source code can require heavy brainstorming. So, we have compiled some interesting ones for you below.
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When you build and design a database with real-life applicability, it will not only refine your conceptual understanding but also boost your problem-solving skills. So, hone your skills and upstart your career by implementing the following sql projects with source code! while starting a career.
What is SQL?
SQL means Structured Query Language. It’s a domain specific programming language that helps control and handle relational databases. SQL offers a uniform way to communicate with databases, allowing learners to perform numerous tasks like querying data, updating records, inserting new data, and more. Relational databases serve data as tables that include rows and columns.
Features of SQL
It offers a wide range of features that enable users to interact with databases effectively. Here are some key features of SQL:
Data Querying and Retrieval
SQL’s primary function is data retrieval. It allows users to write queries that retrieve specific data from one or multiple tables. The SELECT statement, a core SQL feature, enables users to filter, sort, and extract relevant data based on specified conditions.
SQL facilitates the manipulation of data within databases. Users can insert new records using the INSERT statement, update existing records with the UPDATE statement, and remove records using the DELETE statement. These commands ensure efficient data management.
SQL provides commands for defining and managing the structure of a database. The CREATE TABLE statement defines tables, specifying columns, data types, and constraints. Users can also modify tables using ALTER TABLE and delete tables using DROP TABLE.
Data Integrity and Constraints
SQL supports various constraints to maintain data integrity. The UNIQUE constraint ensures the uniqueness of values in a column; the PRIMARY KEY constraint designates a unique identifier for each record; the FOREIGN KEY constraint establishes relationships between tables, and the NOT NULL constraint enforces non-null values.
Data Joins and Relationships
SQL enables users to combine data from multiple tables using JOIN operations. Different types of JOINs, such as INNER JOIN, LEFT JOIN, RIGHT JOIN, and FULL JOIN, allow users to retrieve related data efficiently. These operations help establish relationships between tables.
Aggregation and Grouping
SQL provides aggregate functions like SUM, AVG, COUNT, MIN, and MAX to perform calculations on data sets. The GROUP BY clause groups data based on one or more columns, and the HAVING clause filters grouped data according to specified conditions.
Subqueries, known as nested queries, allow users to embed one query within another. This feature is useful for retrieving data from one table based on conditions derived from another table. Subqueries can be employed in SELECT, UPDATE, and DELETE statements.
SQL allows users to create virtual tables known as views. A view is based on the result of a query and presents data in a customized format without altering the original data. Views can simplify complex queries, enhance data security, and provide a consistent interface to users.
Transactions and Concurrency Control
SQL supports transaction management, which ensures that a series of operations are treated as a single unit of work. This maintains data consistency and integrity. Users can use BEGIN, COMMIT, and ROLLBACK statements to manage transactions effectively.
Access Control and Security
SQL enables administrators to define user roles, permissions, and access levels. This feature ensures users can only perform authorized operations on specific database objects. The GRANT and REVOKE statements control access privileges.
SQL is largely standardized, allowing users to write queries across different relational database management systems (RDBMS). At the same time, variations in syntax exist among RDBMS implementations, and SQL’s core concSQL remains consistent.
Procedural Language Extensions
Some RDBMS implementations offer procedural language extensions, such as PL/SQL for Oracle and T-SQL for Microsoft SQL Server. These extensions allow users to write procedural code within SQL, enabling the creation of stored procedures, functions, and triggers.
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15 Top SQL Project Ideas For Beginners
Impressive SQL projects for resume are vital to strengthen your resume as a beginner. Here are some beginner-friendly SQL topics for you to choose from. Some of these suggestions are SQL projects with source code and DBMS projects using SQL with source.
1. Library Management System
An online library management system offers a user-friendly way of issuing books and also viewing different books and titles available under a category. This type of Management Information System (MIS) can be easily developed in Asp.Net using C#. And SQL queries enable quick retrieval of the required information.
Take the example of your college library, where both teachers and students can issue books. Usually, the number of days within which you have to return the book varies for both the groups. Also, each book has a unique ID, even if they are copies of the same book by the same author. So, a library management system has an entry for every book, capturing who has issued it, the issue duration, and the amount of fine, if any.
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2. Centralized College Database
A college has academic departments, such as the Department of English, Department of Mathematics, Department of History, and so on. And each department offers a variety of courses. Now, an instructor can teach more than one course. Let’s say a professor takes a class on Statistics and also on Calculus.
As a student in the Mathematics department, you can enroll in both of these courses. Therefore, every college course can have any number of students. Here, an important point to note is that a particular course can have only one instructor to avoid overlaps.
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3. Student Database Management
Similarly, you can do a student record-keeping project. The database would contain general student information (such as name, address, contact information, admission year, courses, etc.), attendance file, marks or result file, fee file, scholarship file, etc. An automated student database streamlines the university administration process to a considerable degree.
4. Online Retail Application Database
As e-commerce experiences remarkable growth around the world, online retail application databases are among the most popular SQL project ideas. The application allows the customer to register and buy an item using the internet. The registration process typically involves the generation of a unique customer ID and password and in many cases, consolidates information like Name, Address, Contact Information, Bank details, etc.
Once a user purchases a product, a bill is generated based on the quantity, price, and discount, if any. The customer has to choose a payment method to settle the transaction before it is delivered to the selected location.
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5. Inventory Control Management
Inventory control is the process of ensuring that a business maintains an adequate stock of materials and products to meet customer demands without delay. Both overstocking and understocking situations are undesirable, and the aim is to maximize profitability by keeping inventory at the optimum level.
Also Read: SQL for Data Science
Therefore, the design goals of an inventory control management database would focus on holding the required items, increasing inventory turnover, retaining safety stock levels, obtaining raw materials at lower costs, bringing down storage costs, reducing insurance costs, etc.
6. Hospital Management System
It is a web-based system or software that enables you to manage the functioning of a hospital or any other medical setup. It creates a systematic and standardized record of patients, doctors, and rooms, which can be controlled only by the administrator. All patients and doctors will have a unique and will be related in the database depending on the ongoing treatments. Also, there will be separate modules for hospital admission, patients’ discharge summary, duties of nurses and ward boys, medical stores, etc.
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7. Railway System Database
In this database system, you need to model different train stations, railway tracks between connecting stations, the train details (a unique number for each train), rail routes and schedule of the trains, and passenger booking information. To simplify your project, you can assume that all the trains run every day and have only a one-day journey to their respective destinations. As for recording, you can focus on storing the following details for each station on a rail route:
- In time: When the train arrives at a station
- Out time: When the train leaves a station (This would be the same as in-time if the train does not halt at a station)
- Station’s sequential number: The order of the station in the route
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8. Payroll Management System
It is one of the most preferred SQL database project ideas due to its extensive usage across industries. An organization’s salary management system calculates the monthly pay, taxes, and social security of its employees. It computes the salaries using employee data (name, designation, pay scale, benefits, etc.) and attendance records, including the leaves taken.
Then, based on certain formulas, the software generates output in the form of bank files and salary slips. Similarly, a tax file is created for the tax office and stored in the database.
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9. An SMS-based Remote Server Monitoring System
Such systems are particularly beneficial for large corporate organizations having massive data centers and multiple servers. Since these servers host a large number of applications, it becomes tricky to monitor their functionality. Usually, when a server is down or has crashed, the clients inform the organization about it.
To avoid delays in corrective actions, you need a web-based solution that can remotely keep a check on these server failures. Such an application would periodically ping the servers based on predetermined rules, and then send an SMS to a predetermined list of specialists in case a server is found non-functional. This message would contain specific details about the server, the time of failure, etc.
10. Blood Donation Database
This database would store interrelated data on patients, blood donors, and blood banks. You can take a cue from the data points given below.
- Patient’s Name, Unique ID, Blood group, and Disease
- Donor’s Name, Unique ID, Blood Group, Medical Report, Address, Contact Number
- Blood bank’s Name, Address, Blood banks’ donor details (name, address, contact number)
Now, try to implement the same in a database by creating a schema, an Entity-Relationship (E-R) diagram, and then attempt normalizing it.
11. Art Gallery Management Database
The E-R diagram for an art gallery or museum would comprise the following data:
- About Artist: Name, Age, Birthplace, Style of work
- About Art Works: Artist, Year of making, Unique title, Style of art, price
If you are running an art store, you can also organize and manage all your customer information, including names, addresses, the amount spent, liking and interests.
12. Cooking Recipe Portal
This is another application of SQL databases in the creative field. You can model a web portal where a stored procedure will display your cooking recipes under different categories. Here’s how you can contain and feature your information:
- Cooking recipe article/blog using RichText HTML editor
- ‘Recipe of the Day’ with the highest ratings/likes
- Recipes viewed in the last 5 Hours
You can also add the functionality for users to rate the recipes and comment on them. If you want to edit or delete a recipe, you can do so in a password-protected admin area.
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13. Carbon Emissions Calculator
Lately, environmental conservation has been receiving a lot of attention globally. You can also contribute to the cause by developing a web application that measures the carbon footprint of buildings. This calculator will use data such as floor area and workdays per year combined with user-selected data or custom values on building type, climate zones, type of water fixtures, etc.
So, the emissions given as outputs can be attributable to energy use, domestic water use, transportation, disposal of solid waste. American company CTG Energetics Inc. has conceptualized a similar tool based on an Excel file and later converting it into an SQL server web application. Also, there are some advanced Excel formulas that help to do work in a better way.
14. A Voice-based Transport Enquiry System
This innovative tool helps you save time while travelling. You would have noticed long queues outside the transport controller’s office at public transport terminals. This is where commuters make inquiries about the different types of transport facilities available. In this scenario, technology-enabled transport enquiry systems can result in huge savings of time and effort. You can develop an automated system for bus stands, railway stations, and airports that can receive voice commands and also answer in a voice-based format.
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15. Database Interfacing for LabVIEW Robotic Control
LabVIEW is a dynamic tool that uses data to modify the operating parameters of a robot, depending on different conditions. In order to do this, the data should be stored in such a way that it is readily accessible by the program. Hence, database interfaces are developed to facilitate effective communication. SQL queries within the database allow structured and convenient storage and retrieval of data, which, in turn, improves the robot’s functionality.
The above suggestions would be great SQL projects for resume.
However, once you are done with these SQL topics, you can look into the below-mentioned suggestions that are a bit on the intermediate to pro-level but are great SQL projects for resume.
Under the intermediate to advanced SQL topics, there are functions, data pivoting, cursors, triggers, dynamic SQL, data modelling and many more.
- Temporary Functions: With the help of SQL, you can create temporary or permanent user-defined functions (UDF) and give inputs to perform actions. Temporary functions like such help you divide larger chunks of codes into smaller bits. As a result, delivering cleaner codes. It also prevents the repetition of code similar to functions used in Python.
- CTEs aka Common Table Expressions: In case you need to make a query of a query, CTEs come to your rescue by creating a temporary table. Similar to temporary functions, it also aims at breaking larger portions of work into smaller parts to make it less complex. Therefore, it modularises the codes. CTEs come in handy when you have several sub-queries or, even worse, sub queries of sub queries! You’ll learn about the WHERE clause, which will help you filter data.
- Date and time manipulation: When getting into the intermediate to advanced level of SQL, you are required to know about the date and time manipulation. Some of the functions vital to learning more about this topic are, EXTRACT, DATE_TRUNC. DATEDIFF and DATE_ADD. The topic precisely trains you to curate simple months of DD-MM-YYYY from variable data.
- Data pivoting using CASE WHEN: Implementing the CASE WHEN function is a very common task in SQL. Yet, the concept is so versatile that it is often considered an intermediate to an advanced topic. With the help of the CASE WHEN function, you can easily write and allocate tricky conditional statements to particular values or classes. The function also helps in data pivoting, which is equally helpful in case you have to perform row-column interchange in a data set.
- Ranking: Ranking rows and values is a very common and valuable skill. Companies often utilise functions such as ranking customers by their number of purchases or ranking regions based on sales. There are functions such as ROW_NUMBER(), DENSE_RANK() and RPW_NUMBER() that can be used for ranking.
- Running Totals: Knowing this skill often comes in handy if you are reporting or developing applications. Simplify the process by learning more about ROW_NUMBER() and LAG(). After that, you can learn about SUM() to calculate the running total.
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Projects create an active learning environment where the mind can think critically and employ inquiry-based methods to find solutions. While choosing your sql projects for data analysis, you should typically go for a project in which you at least use database normalization techniques. These are design approaches that reduce the dependency and redundancy of data. With the above SQL project ideas, you are good to go!
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What is the difference between SQL and SQL Server?
SQL or Structured Query Language is a programming language used to manage relational databases and manipulate the data contained in them. SQL Server is a proprietary database system management tool that implements SQL code. Developed by IBM, SQL is a standard query language that adheres to ANSI protocols. Microsoft Corporation developed SQL Server to meet commercial demands. And SQL is implemented by the majority of the relational databases, including SQL Server. SQL Server cannot run on all platforms, whereas SQL is platform-independent. SQL Server is a relational database application that undergoes regular updates, but SQL is standardized and requires no updates.
How is SQL different from PL SQL?
SQL is a standardized query language used for relational databases. PL/SQL is a procedural language that implements SQL codes in an improvised manner. At a time, SQL can execute only a single operation, whereas PL/SQL permits group operations in a block. SQL does not support variables and control structures. But PL/SQL supports variables and data types and control structures like for loop, if-else, while loop, etc. PL/SQL can be used to develop web-based applications and server pages, whereas SQL is only used to retrieve data and modify table structure and data. SQL can be embedded into PL/SQL code, but the reverse is not possible.
Is SQL case sensitive?
For simplicity, remember that KEYWORDS in the SQL framework are made case-insensitive by default and also for most relational databases. The computer system does not differentiate when we write SELECT or select, so we are free to write in any case. However, when it comes to writing SQL statements for enterprise applications that involve collaboration with various other teams, certain conventions are followed. The convention is to generally write SQL keywords in capital letters so that it is easy to read and understand. Even though we can technically use any case to write SQL keywords, practically, that is not done.