Spring MVC is a Java framework that is used to develop web applications. It is built on a Model-View-Controller (MVC) pattern and possesses all the basic features of a spring framework, such as Dependency Injection, Inversion of Control. The architectural design of a Spring MVC can be used to develop flexible web applications. It basically separates the different aspects of the application, like input logic, UI logic, and business logic.
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Spring is an open-source that was created to resolve the complexity of an enterprise application development. It has a layered architecture that helps the developers to select the components which can be further used while providing a cohesive framework for the process of application development. Spring framework is flexible as it supports and can be integrated with various technologies like:
- It supports the REST style of web services.
- Supports transactional management
- The developer can interact with different databases.
- Can be integrated with Object Relationship frameworks, for instance, iBatis
- Containers can resolve the required dependencies as it supports Dependency Integration.
The following article will clear all your doubts about what is Spring MVC, Spring MVC full form and the importance of Spring MVC in Java. Furthermore, it will also shed some light on the differences between Spring MVC and Spring Boot and why the former is preferred over the latter.
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Importance Of Spring MVC
Now that you have a detailed understanding of what is Spring MVC in Java as well as the Spring MVC full form, let’s take a look at the importance of Spring MVC, and why is it preferred over Spring Boot. Well, Spring MVC is generally required more in situations where flexibility is paramount. This is because the Spring MVC architecture easily lets its users configure according to their specific needs. This is especially something that you won’t find in Spring boot, which mainly relies on auto-configuration.
MVCs are mainly used to allow easy testing as well as generate SEO-friendly URL routing. It is also used for the integration of extensions into the framework. With the help of Spring MVC, you no longer need to worry about writing utility code since the Spring MVC architecture allows it to handle HTTP responses and requests much more easily.
Spring MVC Vs Spring Boot
One of the most common disadvantages of Spring Boot, faced by most developers is the lack of control. This is mainly because many additional dependencies are installed, which go unused. This in turn might lead to a larger deployment file size. Spring MVC on the other hand, can seem to be quite a daunting task, especially for developers who do not have much experience in the field. This mainly occurs because of the high amount of complications and variables that you can find in Spring MVC. Therefore, it is recommended that you should always consult an experienced team if you wish to work with this particular framework. Moving on to the advantages of both Spring Boot and Spring MVC, the former can actually save up a lot of time and reduce the wastage of efforts while creating applications. Spring MVC, on the other hand, is particularly beneficial when it comes to developing modular applications since it promotes separation of concerns.
Let us now understand the above-given Spring MVC Flow diagram.
Understanding Spring MVC Flow Diagram
The first step in the MVC flow is when a request is received by the Dispatcher Servlet.
2. Dispatcher Servlet
Now, the Dispatcher Servlet will with the help of Handler Mapping understand the Controller class name associated with the received request. Once the Dispatcher Servlet knows which Controller will be able to handle the request, it will transfer the request to it.
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The Controller will process the request based on appropriate methods and will return it to Model Data and View Name.
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4. Model and View
It will return the processed data to the Dispatcher Servlet.
5. View Resolver
Once Model and View receive the data, Dispatcher Servlet will transfer it to the View Resolver to get the actual view page.
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Finally, the Dispatcher Servlet will pass the Model object (results) to the view page. This is the final step of the flow where the results will be displayed.
Let us understand the process with the help of an example.
For instance, the user wants to buy a t-shirt. Here, the user can view, add to cart, and purchase the item or even remove it from the list. Firstly, the request will be sent by the user, which will be processed by Dispatcher Servlet. The Dispatcher Servlet will study the class of request and will send it to the relevant controller. Let’s say the Controller, in this case, is “tshirt_controller.php”. Now, the controller “tshirt_controller.php” will pick up a suitable view and will present the data to Model and View. Here, it will be sent to Dispatcher Servlet again, which will send the results to View.
Advantages of Spring MVC
- Different roles: The Spring MVC has separate roles which can be fulfilled with the help of a specialized object. The roles involved in this are command object, model object, controller, dispatcher servlet, view resolver, validator, and more.
- Lightweight: The container used for the development and deployment of applications uses a lightweight servlet.
- Fast development: The MVC spring framework enables rapid and parallel development. It helps the developer to complete the project on time.
- Strong and powerful configuration: It provides powerful configuration for application and framework classes. These configurations include easy simple referencing like business objects and web controllers.
- Business code: It provides reusable business codes that allow the developer to use existing business objects instead of creating new objects.
- Easy testing: Spring generally uses Java Beans that allows the developer to inject data using easy methods.
- Mapping: It provides flexible mapping that allows the page to redirect easily.
- Dependency Injection: Inversion of Control or dependency injection allows the developer to not create a complete environment for the dependencies.
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Spring MVC framework is a crucial part for you as a developer as it can help you to attain new heights in your career. It provides an entirely new level to your application, which is more transparent and can be maintained easily. Here is the list of must-know interview questions regarding Spring MVC that will help you to get your dream job. If you are interested to learn more and need mentorship from industry experts, check out upGrad & IIIT Banglore’s PG Diploma in Full-Stack Software Development.
Why should we use Spring MVC?
Spring MVC provides a clear separation of responsibilities, allowing us to design and thoroughly analyze our applications quickly. Dispatcher Servlet, View Resolvers, Controllers, ModelAndView, Views, Models, and Session Attributes are all wholly distinct elements that are solely responsible for one aspect. As a result, MVC provides us with a great deal of freedom. It's built on interfaces with given implementation classes, and we may use custom interfaces to customize every aspect of the framework. Another key point is that we are not restricted to single view technology, but rather have the choice of selecting the ones we want.
What exactly is MVC?
The MVC (Model-View-Controller) architectural design pattern is a software design pattern. It divides an application's operations into three interrelated parts: Model, View, and Controller. The Model part of the MVC encompasses the application data and, in most cases, is to be made up of POJO. The View is in charge of displaying the model data, and it produces HTML output that can be understood by the browser at the Client's end. The Controller is responsible for handling user requests and creating a suitable model, which is then passed to the View for display. This method makes code reusability and parallel development easier. MVC is popular because it separates the application logic and user interface layer, allowing for the separation of responsibilities.
What is a DispatcherServlet?
The DispatcherServlet is a Front Controller and one of the most significant components of the Spring MVC web framework. A Front Controller is a typical structure in web applications that receives requests and delegates their processing to other components in the application. The DispatcherServlet acts as a single entry point for client requests to the Spring MVC web application, forwarding them to the appropriate Spring MVC controllers for processing. DispatcherServlet is a front controller that also helps with view resolution, error handling, locale resolution, theme resolution, and other things. The DispatcherServlet must be specified in the deployment descriptor or web.xml file, just like any other Servlet class.