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OOP vs POP: Difference Between OOP and POP

Computer programming languages are meant to work on certain predefined, high-level structures. These structures are widely known as ‘Programming Paradigm’. The programming paradigm is the way the structure and the elements of a computer program are arranged. OOP and POP are two paradigms in which programming structures are classified. Programming paradigms are important because they define the function and working of a programming language. Also, check out our free courses to get an edge over the competition.

Both these programming processes are applied in many applications. They both have different work approaches. On the one hand, the OOP style of programming divides a program into objects, whereas POP divides it into functions. As there’s no direct approach for a particular problem, a programmer uses programming languages.

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OOP Vs POP

 This blog post entails the key difference between OOP and POP and explains how one is superior to the other as per various parameters. These programming paradigms are applied while developing software, websites, applications, games, etc. Depending on the program length, one of these structures is chosen to attain the accuracy of the result of a program. Basically, these programming paradigms are useful in solving a problem using programming languages. This not only eases the task but also brings accuracy and efficiency. You can also consider doing our Java Bootcamp course from upGrad to upskill your career.

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OOP Definition

Before delving straight into the difference between OOP and POP in Java, C++ and other programming languages, defining each programming paradigm is important. 

Object-Oriented Programming is one of the high-level programming languages in which a program is divided into objects. Using objects, the programmer can model real-world scenarios. An object is an instance of a class and has state and behavior. The state is the attributes, or data, whereas Behavior is called a method.

OOPs connects data and functions operating on it, so that it is inaccessible by any other part of the code except for that function. 

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Languages: C++, Java, Python

OOP Flowchart

Objects and classes are the two fundamental concepts of OOP.

1. Objects: An object is an instance of a class that collects data and procedures for manipulating data. An object is signified as an entity in a real-world such as, human, bottle, chair, a web page, etc.

In OOP, objects allow us to model and simulate real-world entities or abstract concepts in a structured and modular way. They promote reusability, maintainability, and organization of code by encapsulating data and functionality within a unit (object) that can be easily managed and manipulated.

2. Classes: A class defines the properties of objects linked to it.

It consists of objects representing a simlar type. It comprises of two aspects such as functions and attributes. Functions represents the capability of an object, whereas, attributes define the properties of it.

The class acts as a blueprint defining the structure and behavior common to all objects of that class, while objects are instances of these classes that hold unique data and can perform specific actions as defined by the class methods. This paradigm helps in creating modular, organized, and scalable code in various programming languages supporting OOP principles.

OOP Concepts

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1. Abstraction: Abstract classes and interfaces are used to hide the internal details and show the functionality.

It focuses on ideas rather than events, the user will get to understand of “what” than “how”. So when a function is used, it is not necessarily pertinent to understand how the function is being implemented. In simple terms, abstraction helps in creating reusable codes by abstracting away certain details.

For example, “fingerprint unlock”, one can simply place the finger to unlock the phone. Understanding how this fingerprint is unlocking is not necessary. Similarly, ATMs, coffee machine, and starting a car is also some real-world examples of abstraction.

2. Inheritance: An object using the methods and properties of an existing object, is called inheritance. It enhances code reusability.

Many places are required to perform similar functions except a few dissimilar functions, in those places inheritance comes in handy. Inheritance is not only of one type rather different kinds of inheritance, such as:

  1. Multi-level: Multi-level inheritance involves a chain of inheritance where a derived class inherits from a base class, and another class further derives from this derived class. 
  2. Single: Single inheritance refers to a scenario where a derived class inherits properties and behaviors from a single base class. In other words, there’s a one-to-one relationship between a child class and its parent class.
  3. Hybrid: Hybrid inheritance is a combination of multiple types of inheritance. It can include characteristics of multiple inheritance types, such as single, multiple, or multi-level inheritance, within a single program.
  4. Multiple: Multiple inheritance involves a scenario where a class inherits properties and behaviors from more than one base class. This allows a derived class to have characteristics of multiple parent classes.
  5. Hierarchical: Multi-level inheritance involves a chain of inheritance where a derived class inherits from a base class, and another class further derives from this derived class. 

In simple terms, one class inheriting the properties of another class is defined as an inheritance. For example, Nokia, Samsung, and Apple- all of these come under the broader category of mobile phones. They have inherited the properties of class mobile phones, i.e. they are used for communication.

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3. Encapsulation: Data is secured with encapsulation, and binds the attributes and methods together. It restricts access to some parts of the code, if they are not needed. Encapsulation keeps the codes cleaner and easily readable. Encapsulation increases the maintainability, readability, and flexibility of the code.

4. Polymorphism: With polymorphism, an object can function in multiple ways. Examples: Method overloading and method overriding.

There are certain types of polymorphisms such as Compile Time Polymorphism and Runtime Polymorphism. Polymorphism causes operators and functions in many ways. It does its function through special mechanisms such as late binding or dynamic binding. A woman would be a businesswoman, wife, daughter, or mother. Similarly, polymorphism is actioned in different ways for different functions.

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POP Definition

To learn the key difference between OOPs and POPs, you must first learn the fundamental concepts of POP. 

Procedural Oriented Programming is one of the programming methods where the main focus is on functions or procedures required for computation, instead of data.

The program is divided into functions, and the task is done sequentially. These functions share the global data or variables, and there is an exchange of data among those functions. It is a step-by-step process that breaks the task through a sequence of instructions. It uses a top-down approach and sees data and procedures as separate structures.

Languages: C, Pascal, FORTRAN

POP Flowchart

All the computer programs are initially procedural. A programmer has to feed the computer with a set of instructions by which the code will move from one to another. As the functions share global data, they move singly around the system from one function to another, making the program vulnerable to data breaches. To overcome this limitation, the object-oriented programming concept comes in, which guarantees data security.

With POP, modeling real-world scenarios are difficult. With the addition of new data, all the functions have to be modified.

Functions transform data from one form to another. POP follows a top-down programming approach while designing a program. Read about OOPs concepts in PHP.

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Key aspects of POP include:

Drawing a comparison between OOP and POP will be easier to do once you learn the key aspects of the two. We have already covered the key aspects of OOPs. Let’s look at the key aspects of POP:-

  • Protocol: A protocol refers to a set of rules, or interface, defining a contract that classes or types can conform to by implementing its methods or properties. It outlines the behavior that a type should have without specifying the implementation details.
  • Composition over inheritance: While OOP heavily relies on class inheritance, POP encourages the use of composition by defining protocols that describe what a type can do rather than inheriting behavior from a parent class. Types can adopt multiple protocols to gain functionality without creating complex inheritance hierarchies.
  • Flexibility and decoupling: POP aims to provide more flexibility in structuring code by promoting loose coupling between components. By defining protocols and adhering to them, different types can interact with each other based on shared functionality without being directly related through inheritance.
  • Duck typing: POP is often associated with the concept of “duck typing,” where the focus is on the behavior of an object rather than its type. If an object adheres to a protocol (walks like a duck, quacks like a duck), it can be used wherever that protocol is expected.
  • Dynamic dispatch: Similar to OOP’s polymorphism, POP allows for dynamic dispatch of methods based on the protocol that a particular type conforms to, enabling runtime flexibility and behavior determination.

Difference Between POP and OOP in C++

In C++, both Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) and Programming Oriented to Protocols (POP) present distinct paradigms for designing software systems. OOP in C++ revolves around organizing code through classes, objects, inheritance, and encapsulation, promoting the construction of programs based on hierarchical class structures. On the other hand, POP in C++ focuses on defining interfaces or protocols that multiple classes can adhere to, allowing for a more function-oriented design rather than relying solely on class hierarchies. 

Let’s look at the difference between POP and OOP in C++ in the table below:-

 

Features OOP in C++ POP in C++
Basic Approach Emphasizes classes, objects, inheritance, and encapsulation. Focuses on interfaces or protocols over class hierarchies.
Data Control and Hiding Heavily emphasizes data control through encapsulation. Focuses more on function-oriented design over data encapsulation.
Inheritance Supports inheritance with various access levels. Involves designing interfaces/protocols for multiple class adherence.
Polymorphism Achieves polymorphism through compile-time and runtime mechanisms. Leverages interface-based programming for polymorphic behavior.
Code Reusability Promotes code reusability via inheritance and polymorphism. Code reusability might be less pronounced; relies on explicit protocol adherence.
Language Features Provides robust support for classes, objects, inheritance, etc. Uses abstract classes, function pointers, and protocols/interfaces for design.

Difference Between OOP and POP in Java

In Java programming, Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) and Programming Oriented to Protocols (POP) are two different ways to design software.

OOP in Java: Focuses on classes, objects, inheritance, and encapsulation. Builds programs using class hierarchies.

POP in Java: Concentrates on defining interfaces or protocols for shared behaviors. Doesn’t rely much on strict class structures.

The table below highlights the key difference between OOPs and POPs in Java, showcasing their approaches to data control, inheritance, polymorphism, code reusability, and language features within Java programming.

 

Features OOP in Java POP in Java
Approach Organizes code around classes and objects Defines interfaces for shared behaviors
Data Handling Emphasizes data control through encapsulation Prioritizes shared behavior over data control
Inheritance Supports class and interface inheritance Focuses on protocols for class adherence
Polymorphism Achieves via method overriding/overloading Utilizes interfaces for shared behaviors
Code Reusability Through inheritance and interfaces More reliant on adhering to interfaces
Language Features Supports classes, objects, etc. Uses interfaces and abstract classes for protocols

OOP Vs POP: Comparison Table

Their full form tells a lot, pop full form in programming is Procedural Oriented Programming and OOP’s full form in programming is Object Oriented Programming. The key difference between OOP and POP is that an OOP divides a program into smaller objects, whereas POP divides a program into smaller procedures or functions to arrive at the results of the problem

POP is utilised globally rather than OOP functions within the class. This makes POP less secure as it uses global data and OOP is secure because external functions cannot access the data. Let’s dive deep into the comparison points between the two programming paradigms in terms of certain parameters. Let’s discuss the difference between OOPs and POPs.

There is a difference between pop and oop in c++. The basic difference between pop vs oop has been discussed earlier one more difference is their security level. The OOP is much more secure than POP because OOP has a data hiding feature that POP does not have. More oop and pop difference are discussed below.

 

 

OOP and POP Difference

Let’s dive deep into the comparison points between the two programming paradigms in terms of certain parameters.

Parameters OOP POP
Basic Definition OOP is object-oriented. POP is structure or procedure-oriented.
      Program Division The program is divided into objects. The program is divided into functions.
     Approach Bottom-Up approach Top-down approach
      Data Control Data in each object is controlled on its own. Every function has different data, so there’s no control over it.
  Entity Linkage Object functions are linked through message passing. Parts of a program are linked through parameter passing.
      Expansion Adding new data and functions is easy. Expanding data and function is not easy.
    Inheritance Inheritance is supported in three modes: public, private & protected. Inheritance is not supported.
   Access control Access control is done with access modifiers. No access modifiers supported.
Data Hiding Data can be hidden using Encapsulation. No data hiding. Data is accessible globally.
Overloading or Polymorphism Overloading functions, constructors, and operators are done. Overloading is not possible.
Friend function Classes or functions can be linked using the keyword “friend, only in C++. No friend function.
Virtual classes or functions The virtual function appears during inheritance. No virtual classes or functions.
  Code Reusability The existing code can be reused. No code reusability.
Problem Solving Used for solving big problems. Not suitable for solving big problems.
  Example C++, JAVA, VB.NET, C#.NET. C, VB, FORTRAN, Pascal

Conclusion

Programming is a lucrative field to pursue considering the rising demand of experts in this field. Learning OOPs and POPs difference is a core part of your learning journey. Once you understand thekey points of OOP and POP difference, you are bound to get a wider view of how to design software.

The two major programming paradigms, viz., OOP and POP discussed in this article are the most used languages. While POP is a conventional method of programming, OOP is a step ahead of it and overcomes the limitations POP poses. We have tried to clear both concepts with ample instances of differences between OOP and POP.

Programmers greatly rely on how to discern between OOP vs POP because it allows them to choose the best approach for a project. As the need for skilled programmers grows, knowing these paradigms improves your skills and helps you find different ways to solve problems in software development.

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What are the benefits of OOP over POP?

OOP gives the major benefit of data hiding using encapsulation, unlike POP. Moreover, in POP there would be no possible control over data since data is different for every function. Thus, in POP, handling and managing of language becomes more extensive and difficult with an increase in the size of the program. Also, OOP is safer because of the data-hiding feature, which restricts data access to member functions of the same class. It is easier to model real-world situations easily in OOP as a real system can be presented in the code or database using real-world objects simulated in the code.

What are the limitations of OOP?

While OOP does support the concept of inheritance, despite being beneficial, it is difficult to create it. Understanding the OOPs language takes time. It is inappropriate for certain issues. Thus, it may take time to get used to the concept of OOP as it may turn out to be complex to create objects, its their data, and the interaction between them all. Moreover, the very advantages of OOP - polymorphism, inheritance, or encapsulation, may be the exact things which that create problems in the code, if not used properly. Thus, a thorough understanding of OOPs concepts is very important before diving deep into it them.

What are virtual functions and why does POP not support it?

Virtual functions are used as pointers or references to another class for the purpose of runtime polymorphism. A virtual function is a dynamic dispatch-enabled function or method that is inheritable and overridable. Since POP does not support polymorphism, it does not use virtual functions. Thus, virtual functions are never utilized to achieve polymorphism in methods that can't be used.

Which is better POP or OOP?

OOP is secure as it has a feature to hide the data whereas POP does not have any such feature. The difference between oop and pop is not limited but adheres to various aspects, such as the codes can be reused in OOP whereas there is no reusability in POP. On the contrary, POP is more structure-oriented than object, unlike OOPs. This oop vs pop is not the end goal but rather their usability and ability to drive the task easily as the applicability of each one depends upon scenarios.

What is OOP in C++?

OOP stands doe Object Oriented Programming, it is object-oriented. It is divided into objects than procedures. C++ looks at the problem in terms of the involved objects rather than the procedures, this is why C++ is called the object-oriented programming language.This approach allows developers to model complex systems more intuitively, emphasizing the interaction between these objects. C++, as an object-oriented language, encourages this object-centric approach to problem-solving, promoting code reusability, easier maintenance, and clearer design by encapsulating data and functionalities within these objects.

Why is OOP so popular in programming?

OOP supports the reusability of a code making it better programming to work with. Along with that, big problems can be solved using this without any compromise on security. It also makes software easier to maintain by organizing code neatly into reusable parts, making it simpler to update and understand. This approach also lets developers represent real-world things more easily. Plus, it focuses on essential details, making problem-solving easier. Overall, OOP's flexibility and tidy structure make it widely used in programming.

Is Python OOP or POP?

Python is object-oriented as classes and objects using it, which makes python a OOP than POP. Python primarily uses Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) because it heavily relies on classes and objects. In Python, everything is considered an object, and the language supports essential OOP concepts like inheritance and encapsulation. It encourages structuring code around objects, making it easier to create reusable and organized code. Although Python can support other programming styles, its focus on objects and their interactions makes it more aligned with OOP than Programming Oriented to Protocols (POP).

Is polymorphism possible in C?

No, polymorphism is not possible in C as polymorphism is object-oriented so is inheritance, making it not possible in C. In C, there's no built-in support for features like inheritance and virtual functions, which are essential for achieving polymorphism in Object-Oriented Programming (OOP). Polymorphism allows objects to change behavior based on their context, but C lacks these OOP-specific abilities. This absence of OOP features in C makes achieving polymorphism in its traditional sense impossible within the language.

What are the benefits of OOP over POP?

OOP gives the major benefit of data hiding using encapsulation, unlike POP. Moreover, in POP there would be no possible control over data since data is different for every function. Thus, in POP, handling and managing of language becomes more extensive and difficult with an increase in the size of the program. Also, OOP is safer because of the data-hiding feature, which restricts data access to member functions of the same class. It is easier to model real-world situations easily in OOP as a real system can be presented in the code or database using real world objects simulated in the code.

What are the limitations of OOP?

While OOP does support the concept of inheritance, despite being beneficial, it is difficult to create it. Understanding the OOPs language takes time. It is inappropriate for certain issues. Thus, it may take time to get used to the concept of OOP as it may turn out to be complex to create objects, its data and interaction between them all. Moreover, the very advantages of OOP - polymorphism, inheritance or encapsulation, may be the exact things which create problems in the code, if not used properly. Thus, thorough understanding of OOPs concepts is very important before diving deep into it.

What are virtual functions and why does POP not support it?

Virtual functions are used as pointers or references to another class for the purpose of runtime polymorphism. A virtual function is a dynamic dispatch-enabled function or method that is inheritable and overridable. Since POP does not support polymorphism, it does not use virtual functions. Thus, virtual functions are never utilized to achieve polymorphism in methods that can't be used.

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