Manual testing refers to a type of software testing that involves executing test cases manually by a human tester without the aid of any automated tools or scripts. Manual testing aims to identify defects, errors, and weaknesses in software applications. This technique is essential for detecting critical flaws in software and is considered the most basic form of testing.
Manual testing is an essential part of software development, and it requires a specific set of skills and knowledge. If you are preparing for a manual testing interview, you need to be ready to answer some common questions that interviewers ask.
What are the different types of testing?
Here are some different types of testing in software:
- Unit testing: testing individual methods and functions of your software’s classes, components, or modules.
- Performance testing: testing the performance of the software under different conditions.
- Integration testing: testing how different parts of the system work together.
- Functional testing: testing the functionality of the software against the requirements.
- Security testing: testing the software for vulnerabilities and weaknesses.
- User acceptance testing: testing the software with end-users to ensure it meets their needs and expectations.
- Regression testing: testing to ensure that changes to the software have not introduced new bugs.
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To ace your manual testing or software testing interview questions, keep reading this article.
In this blog, we will discuss the most asked manual testing interview questions for freshers, intermediaries and experienced candidates.
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Manual testing interview questions for freshers
Here are the top 5 manual testing interview questions and answers for freshers:
1. What is the difference between verification and validation?
Validation ensures that the software satisfies customer requirements, while verification examines that the program adheres to the established standards. Verification is a static testing process that includes checking documents, designs, codes, and programs, while validation is a dynamic testing process that includes testing and validating the actual product.
2. How do you set up a manual test?
To create a manual test, one must first decide on the test objectives and then create and execute test cases. One should follow these steps:
- Make a detailed test strategy after analysing the program requirements.
- Create test cases that address all the specifications included in the paper.
- Request the QA lead to evaluate your test cases.
- Run test cases and look for any issues.
3. What is API testing?
API (Application Programming Interface) testing is a type of testing that is used to test the application programming interface (API) of the software. An API serves as middleware that channels data between software products, and API testing is intended to check the programming interfaces’ functionality, reliability, performance, and security.
4. What is the difference between alpha and beta testing?
The developer team does beta testing, whereas the end users conduct alpha testing. Alpha testing focuses more on identifying bugs, defects, and design issues, while beta testing is broader and aims to gather feedback on the overall user experience.
5. What is a testbed?
A testbed is a hardware and software environment used to test the program. It is used to improve the understanding of a system’s functional requirements and operational behaviour, and it supplies measurements from which quantitative results about the system can be derived.
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Manual testing and software testing interview questions for freshers
Here are the top 5 manual testing interview questions and answers for intermediaries:
1. What is exploratory testing, and when do you use it?
Exploratory testing is a software testing method in which test cases are not developed ahead of time, and testers verify the system on the fly. It is a concurrent learning, test design, and execution method that emphasises discovery and depends on the individual tester’s direction to reveal faults that are not readily addressed in the scope of other tests.
2. What is the difference between manual testing and software testing?
Manual testing is performed by a human tester who clicks through the application or interacts with the software and APIs with the appropriate tooling. The tester checks all the essential features of the given application or software and executes the test cases without the help of any automation software testing tools.
Software testing is performed by a machine that executes a test script written in advance. Automated tests are performed by testers who write code/test scripts to automate test execution.
3. What is the difference between smoke testing and sanity testing?
Smoke testing is usually automated, whereas sanity testing is mostly conducted manually.
Smoke testing aims to ensure the stability of the build by testing the essential features of an application and is typically carried out early in the software development life cycle. By comparison, sanity testing is a regression testing technique that focuses on specific features and defects in the build and is performed towards the end of the development process.
4. What is the role of a test plan, and how do you create one?
A test plan is a written document describing the approach, parameters, tools, and timeline for testing a software solution or system. To create a test plan, you should follow these steps:
- Define the objectives and scope of the testing effort.
- Identify the testing approach and methodology to be used.
- Determine the testing environment and required resources.
- Define the test schedule and timeline.
- Identify the test deliverables and reporting requirements.
5. What is the difference between black box testing and white box testing?
Black box testing focuses on the software’s exterior behaviour without knowing its underlying workings. This approach is used by testers to guarantee that the software satisfies the requirements and performs as intended.
White box testing focuses on the program’s internal workings, requiring an understanding of its code and structure. This approach is used by testers to guarantee that the program is accurately planned and implemented, as well as to find any problems or vulnerabilities in the code. Both testing techniques are significant and utilised at various product development phases.
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Manual testing and functional testing interview questions for experienced
Here are the top 5 manual testing interview questions and answers for the experienced:
1. What is boundary value analysis?
Boundary value analysis is a testing approach utilised in software testing that entails examining the extreme limits or boundaries that separate different input value partitions. The aim is to test how the software behaves at the edge of each partition, which is more likely to have errors compared to the behaviour within the partition.
This technique is based on testing the boundary values of valid and invalid partitions. The testing process involves testing the maximum, minimum, start, end, lower, upper, just inside, and just outside values. The technique is used to identify defects in the software and improve its quality.
2. What is regression testing, and why is it important?
Regression testing is a necessary process in software testing that verifies whether an application works as intended after any modifications or enhancements. Its significance lies in ensuring existing features’ continued reliability and functionality, ultimately leading to better software product quality and an improved end-user experience.
By conducting regression testing, one can identify and fix new bugs or issues that may have been introduced due to code changes. Additionally, it serves as an essential means of assessing the effectiveness of incorporating new code into an already-existing program or application.
3. What is equivalence partitioning, and how is it used in testing?
Equivalence partitioning is a black-box testing technique that reduces the number of test cases by dividing the input domain into data classes. The technique involves creating boundaries that ensure code paths are not executed for specific input data values.
By dividing the input data into equivalent partitions, test cases can be derived that help determine the application’s efficiency. Equivalence partitioning is a popular software testing technique that can be applied to all levels of testing, including unit, integration, and system testing.
4. What’s the difference between manual testing and quality assurance?
Manual testing is a form of software testing involving human testers (QA specialists) to carry out testing procedures by operating a program or application through various scenarios and recording any identified glitches or errors.
The objective of quality assurance is to proactively plan for potential quality risks during the production of products or services. In contrast, quality control focuses on testing the quality of the final product or service output.
5. What is the purpose of end-to-end testing, and why is it important?
End-to-end testing aims to test the entire flow of an application, from start to finish, to ensure that it works as expected and behaves correctly in a real-world scenario. This type of testing involves creating an environment identical to the one that real users will use and testing all actions that users might perform on the application.
End-to-end testing is important because it helps to validate the integration with external interfaces, data integrity, and communication with other systems, interfaces, and databases.
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To prepare for a manual testing interview, it is essential to practice answering common software testing questions. These questions cover various topics, such as the difference between static and dynamic testing, the software testing life cycle, and exploratory testing. The best way to prepare for an interview is to obtain more knowledge and upskill. And, what else can be better than upGrad’s Master’s in Computer Science for this?
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What is the defect life cycle in manual testing?
The defect life cycle in manual testing includes the following stages: New, Open, Assigned, Fixed, Verified, Reopened, and Closed.
What are the common challenges faced in manual testing?
The common challenges faced in manual testing are lack of test coverage, lack of documentation, and lack of resources.
What is defect tracking?
Defect tracking is the process of identifying and tracking defects in a software application throughout the testing and development process.