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50 Most Asked Javascript Interview Questions & Answers [2023]

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Javascript Interview Question and Answers

In this article, we have compiled the most frequently asked JavaScript Interview Questions. These questions will give you an acquaintance with the type of questions that an interviewer might ask you during your interview.
JavaScript is a scripting language that is extremely useful in web development. Brendan Eich developed JavaScript back in 1995 and it is used by giants like Facebook and Google. It is quite impossible to fathom the versatility of JavaScript. Interviewers are always trying to gauge the knowledge of a prospective employee before handing them the appointment letter.

So, it’s essential to brush up on your JavaScript knowledge. Here are some of the Javascript interview questions that an interviewer can ask you if you are going for an interview.

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The javascript interview questions and answers have been divided into three categories:

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Javascript interview questions and answers – Beginner Level

Q1. How are JavaScript and Java different from each other?

Javascript is Object-oriented programming or OOP scripting language. Java is Object-oriented programming or OOP programming language

JavaScript can be run only on a browser. Java helps in creating applications that can be run on a browser or a virtual machine.

JS is presented in textual form. Java requires compilation.

 Refer to the below-mentioned table to understand the differences between the two-

 

JavaScript Java
It is interpreted. It is compiled.
Executed along with HTML. Independent language, executed using JVM (Java Virtual Machine).
It can be coded using any code editor. Need specific JDK (Java Development KIT) and specific IDEs to code in Java.
Used for front-end Used for back-end
Dynamic type checking  Static type checking 
Executed in browser Executed in JVM.

 

This constitutes one of the most asked javascript interview questions. Make sure to prepare well for these questions. 

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Q2. What is JavaScript?

JavaScript is a lightweight and interpreted programming language with object-oriented capacity. It helps you to develop interactivity into static HTML pages.

Benefits of JavaScript include-

  • It is speedy
  • Simple to work with
  • Adapted widely, making it popular.
  • Interoperable
  • Extended functionality
  • Efficient performance
  • Rich interface
  • Less server interaction

This is among the javascript interview questions for freshers 2023; you may expect a question like such in your interview. Make sure to elaborate your answer a little more by mentioning the advantages of the technology. This will add depth to your answer. 

Q3. What data types do JavaScript support?

There are a few data types that JavaScript supports, which are:

  • Boolean
  • Null
  • String
  • Undefined
  • Symbol
  • Object
  • Number
    javascript-data types

Q4. What are the different features of JavaScript?

  • Javascript is a lightweight and interpreted programming language.
  • It has been designed to create applications which are network-centric.
  • It is complementary to Java and integrated with it.
  • JavaScript is a cross-platform and open scripting language
  • Scripting language
  • Statement loopings
  • Ability to perform
  • Light-weight and delicate
  • Interpreter centred
  • Client edge technology 
  • Validation of user’s input 

This question can be expected in javascript interview questions 2023

Q5. Is JavaScript case-sensitive?

Yes , JavaScript is case-sensitive.

Q6. What advantages does JavaScript have?

Some advantages are:

  • Lower interaction with the server: With the help of JavaScript, you will be able to validate any user-based input before you send off the page to the server. 
  • Instant feedback to visitors: Visitors can immediately find out if they forgot to enter anything even before the page reloads. 
  • Increase in Interactivity: With JavaScript, you can create different interfaces which can react once the user hovers the mouse over them or uses the keyboard to activate them.
  • Faster: It is an interpreting language, thus reducing the time required by other languages. 
  • Simple: It is easy to understand and learn. The structure is simple for the users and the developers. 
  • Popular: All modern browsers support JavaScript; it has become popular and is adopted by various organisations and developers.
  • Interoperable: It works very efficiently with other programming languages.
  • Interface: It provides various interfaces to the users to develop the browsers. 
  • Versatile: It is capable of handling front-end and back-end development. 
  • Less Overhead: JavaScript improves browsers, webpages, and websites by reducing the code length. 

Javascript interview questions for freshers like these must be well structured while answering. It will bring more clarity to your answer and help establish a positive impression on your recruiter.

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Q7: How can one create an object using JavaScript?

Since JavaScript is an Object-oriented programming scripting language, it supports the concept of Object. By using Object literal, you can create an object. 

Q8. How can one use JavaScript to create an Array?

If you want to define arrays in JavaScript, you can do so by using an array literal. Example:

var x = [];

var y = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];

Q9. What is the name function in JavaScript and how can you define it?

A named function in JavaScript declares a name once it gets defined. Example:

function named(){

// write code here

}

Q10. Can one assign an anonymous function to a variable and then pass it as an argument to another function?

With Javascript, it is possible to assign an anonymous function to a variable and pass it as an argument in another function.

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Q11. In JavaScript, what is an argument object, and how can you get argument types passed to a function?

Variable arguments in JavaScript represent arguments that are passed to a function. You can use the typeof operator to get the type of arguments. 

Q12. In JavaScript, what are the scopes of a variable?

Scope of a variable means the region of your program within which it is defined. There are two scopes:

  • Global Variables: A global variable has a global scope meaning that it will be visible everywhere within your code.
  • Local Variables: Local variables will only be visible within the function in which it has been defined.

Refer to the below-mentioned table-

Local Variables Global variables
Defined within functions Defined outside functions.
Have local scope Have global scope
Can be only used within functions that define them. Can be used by any function without passing to the function as parameters. 

Q13. What does the ‘This’ operator in JavaScript do?

The ‘This’ keyword used in JavaScript talks about the object to which it belongs. It has many different values, and it depends on where it is used. 

Some of the ‘this’ keyword uses are mentioned below-

  • Refers to an object.
  • Refers to objects depending upon how it is used. 
  • Allows reusing functions in different execution contexts.

Q14. What is referred to a ‘Callback’?

A callback is a JavaScript function passed to some method as an option or an argument. The Callback is a function that needs to be executed after another function has finished executing.

Some of the properties of a callback include the following-

  • It is a function passed as an argument to another function.
  • Allows a function to call another function. 
  • It is to be executed when after another function has been executed. 

Javascript interview questions and answers must be answered mentioning properties. This allows for establishing a good understanding and reputation in front of the recruiters. 

Q15. Define Closure.

Closure is developed when a specific variable is defined outside the current scope, and  is accessed from within with some inner scope. 

Properties of closure in javascript-

  • Makes it possible to have ‘private’ variables. 
  • Has access to the parent scope, even if the parent function has closed. 
  • Gives access to the outer function’s scope from an inner function. 

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Q16. What are some of the built-in methods in JavaScript and what are the values returned by them?

Some of the built-in methods and the values returned by them are:

Concat() helps to join two or more than two strings

CharAt() helps to return the character at the specific index

forEach() helps to call a function for each element present in the array

length() helps to return the length of the string

indexOf() helps in returning the index within the calling String object of the first occurrence of the specific value

push() helps to add one or more than one element to the end of an array and then return the new length of that array

pop() helps to remove the last element from an array and return that element

reverse() helps to reverse the order of elements of an array

Q17. What are a few conventions of naming variables in JavaScript?

A few rules are:

  • One should not use any JavaScript reserved keyword as the variable name. 
  • Variable names in JavaScript cannot start with a numerical that is within 0-9. 
  • Variable names in JavaScript are case sensitive. 

Q18.  What is the work of the TypeOf Operator?

The typeof operator can be used to get the datatype of its operand. The specified operand can be a data structure or a literal such as a function, object or a variable.

The properties of TypeofOperator-

  • Returns a string indicating the type of operand’s value.
  • It is used for type checking.
  • The operand can be of any variable.

Q19. How can you create a cookie with the help of JavaScript?

You can create a cookie in JavaScript simply by assigning a string value to the document.cookie object. 

The syntax:

document.cookie = “key1 = value1; key2 = value2; expires = date”;

Q20. How can you use JavaScript to read a cookie?

You can read a cookie as simply as creating a cookie in JavaScript as it is actually the value of the document.cookie object. If you want to access that specific cookie, you can use this string any time. 

  • By using the document.cookie string, you can keep a list of name – value pairs which are separated by semicolons, where the name is actually the name of a cookie and the value is the string value.
  • You can also make use of strings’ split() function to break the string into values and keys.

Q21. How can you use JavaScript to delete a cookie?

If you wish to delete a cookie so that any subsequent attempts made to read the cookie will not return anything, then, you have to set an expiration date of the cookie to a past time. 

Questions till here mentioned javascript interview questions freshers. Let’s move forward to more intermediate level javascript interview questions which will really test your JavaScript knowledge.

Javascript interview questions and answers – Intermediate Level

Q22. How are Attributes different from Property?

Attribute provides more details of an element like type, id, value, etc.

It is the initial state when rendered in DOM.

Property is the specific value assigned to the property. For example, value = ‘Name’, type = “text”, etc.

It is the current state.

Q23. Give a list of the various ways using which an HTML element can be accessed within a JavaScript code?

A few ways are:

  • getElementById(‘idname’): Using this method, you can get an element by the ID name of the element.
  • getElementsByClass(‘classname’): Using this method, you can get all elements which have a given classname.
  • getElementsByTagName(‘tagname’): Using this method, you can get all elements which have a given tag name.
  • querySelector(): The querySelector() function takes the css style selector and returns the first selected element.

Q24. What are the different ways a JavaScript code can be involved within an HTML file?

The three different ways:

  • Inline
  • External
  • Internal

The JavaScript function known as the inline function is assigned to a variable that is created at runtime. On the other hand, if you require a JavaScript for function, you can integrate the script on the page on which you are working or you can place it as a separate file which can be called, when needed. This essentially, becomes the difference between external and internal script.

External CSS: The files constitute a cleaner structure and that are in smaller size.

  •  The same .css files can be used for multiple pages. 

Inline CSS: The rules can be easily inserted CSS rules to an HTML page. 

  • This method is used for testing or previewing pages. 
  • Useful for performing quick- fixes to the website. 

Internal CSS: There is no need to upload multiple files.

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Q25. What are the different ways in which you can define a JavaScript variable?

There are 3 ways:

  • Var – The JavaScript variable statement helps to declare a variable. Alternatively, it can also be used to initialize the value of that specific variable. 
  • Const: The const functions are used so as to not allow the modification of the object on which it is called. So, when a function is said to be const, the function can be called on any object type.
  • Let: Let is used as a signal that shows that a variable can be reassigned, like a counter in a loop or that value swap within an algorithm. 

Some of the rules for these types of variables-

  1. Use const as much, unless there is a need to redeclare or hoist a variable.
  2. Use let while working with loops.
  3. Use var while working with legacy codes.

Q26. What is typed language?

In Typed Language, values are associated with values alone. They are not associated with variables. There are two types of Typed Language:

Dynamically: For Dynamically Typed language, the variable can hold several types. 

  • Do not require any pre-defined data type of variable.
  • Interpreters assign the data type to the variable at the runtime.

Statically: In Statically Typed languages, the variable is capable of holding only one type. 

  • The data type of a variable is known at the compile time. 
  • Have to pre-define the return type of function.

Q27. How is Local Storage different from Session Storage?

Local Storage – In local storage, the data will not be returned to the server at every HTTP request (images, HTML, CSS, JavaScript, etc). It helps to reduce the traffic between server and client.  

Session Storage – Session Storage is quite similar to the local storage. However, unlike data storage in local systems which has an expiry time, data stored using session storage gets cleared once the page session ends. 

Refer to the below-mentioned table-

 

Local Storage Session Storage
Provide access to the document’s local storage. Objects can be accesed using session storage read-only property. 
The data is stored across the browser sessions. The data is cleared when the page session ends.
Data is cleared when the last tab of a browser is closed. A new session is created each time a tab or a window is opened.
It has four methods-

  1. setItem() Method 
  2. getItem() Method
  3. removeItem() Method
  4. clear() Method 
It has four methods-

  1. setItem() Method
  2. getIteam() Method 
  3. removeItem() Method
  4. clear() Method 

 

These types of questions comes under top javascript interview questions 2023. They are going to be relevant in coming times and must be well prepared before appearing for an interview.

Q28. What are the differences between operator ‘==’ and ‘===’?

The difference between operator “==” and operator ‘===’ is that the former compares the variable by making a type correction. So, if you were to compare a number with a string with numeric literal, such comparison can be made using ‘==’ but not ‘===’. ‘===’ checks the value and the type of two variables. 

Refer to the below-mentioned table-

 

== ===
Does the type conversion of the operands before comparison.  Compares values as well as the data types of the operands.
Converts the variable values to the same type before comparison. Does not do any type conversion.

Q29. How are null and undefined differences?

Undefined refers to a variable which has been declared but the value assignment of the data has not been conducted. However, null is itself an assignment value. 

Refer to the below-mentioned table-

 

 

Null Undefined
Intentional absence of value. Value does not exist in the compiler.
One of the primitive values of javascript. Global object.
Its syntax is a null ECMAScript1 (ES1) feature.
Supported browsers are Chrome, Firefox, Safari, etc. Variables have not been declared at all.

 

Q30.  How are undeclared and undefined different?

Undeclared variables are those kinds of variables which do not exist in a program and hence, are not declared. If the program attempts to read it, there will be a runtime error. Undefined variables are variables which are declared but there has been no value given to them. 

Refer to the below-mentioned table-

 

Undeclared Undefined
Do not exist in the memory heap. Exist in the memory heap.
Considered undeclared as the programmer does not write with var, let, const. Considered undefined because assigned by javascript.
Javascript throw a reference error if tried to access in the code execution phase. If tried to be accesed, get undefined as value.

 

Q31. Name a few JavaScript Frameworks?

JavaScript frameworks mean an application framework which has been written in JavaScript. A few common ones are:

  • React
  • Angular
  • Vue

This question is considered among one of the most most asked javascript interview questions, so try to be well prepared with your answer before hand.

Q32. How are the JavaScript window and JavaScript document different from one another?

Window is a global object and it holds functions, variables, location and history.

Document is a part of the window and is deemed as a property of the Javascript window.

Refer to the below-mentioned table-

Javascript window Javascript document
Represents the loaded document seen in the window or browser. Represents browser window in which the content is being seen.
Related properties are stored in the window object. Related properties are stored in a document object.
Object of browser. Object of window

Q33. How are innerText and innerHTML different?

innerText – innerText does not process an HTML tag if it is found within a string.

innerHTML – innerHTML processes an HTML tag if it is found within a string.

Q34. In JavaScript, what is known as event bubbling?

Event bubbling refers to a specific way of event propagation in HTML DOM API. This happens when an event occurs within an element inside of another element and when both elements have a handle registered for the said event. When it comes to bubbling, the event which is first captured by the innermost element is eventually relayed to the outer elements.

Once the execution begins from one event, it goes out to the parent element. After that, the execution passes on to the parent element and this continues till the body element.

Q35. In JavaScript, what is NaN?

NaN stands for Not a Number. NaN is always used to compare unequal to any number, which includes NaN itself. Hence, it is generally used to bring out an error condition for any function that can return a valid number. When a string, for example, is converted into a number and if it cannot be done, then the NaN shows up.

Q36. How are JavaScript primitive/object types passed through functions?

Primitive data types are passed By Value while Objects are passed By Reference.

  • By Value means that it develops a copy of the genuine or original sd if it is a twin.
  • By Reference means that it creates an ALIAS of the genuine or original. You can compare it with common nicknames.

Q37. How to convert string of any base to an integer using JavaScript?

By using the parseInt() function, you can transform numbers among different bases. 

Q38. In JavaScript, what will be the result of the problem: 2+5+“3”?

  1. Since 2 and 5 are integers, normal addition will be executed. 3 however is a string and hence, there will be concatenation. “” represents a string.

Q39. What are imports and exports?

Imports and exports are useful to write modular JavaScript code. It can be split up further into multiple files.

You are already mastering some of the tough javascript interview questions. Now, it’s time to dive deep and go for some advanced javascript interview questions and answers.

Javascript interview questions and answers – Advanced Level

Q40. What is known as the Strict mode and how can you enable it?

The Strict mode helps you to check errors in your code. When you are using strict mode, you will not be able to use implicitly declared variables nor can you assign any value to read-only property.  

If you want to enable the strict mode, all you have to do is add “use strict” at the start of a program, function or file.

Q41. In JavaScript, what is the use of the prompt box?

The prompt box in JavaScript helps the user to input with the help of a text box. The prompt() method helps to display the dialog box which prompts the visitor to provide an input. 

  • It is used when the user wants to input a value before entering a page.
  • The user would have to click ‘OK’ or ‘Cancel’ to proceed after entering a value.
  • On being clicked OK, the box returns the input value.

This type of question is considered among one the most asked javascript interview questions and answers for freshers. Make sure to elaborate and structure your answer while responding. It will add depth to your answers.

Q42. What outcome will come out of this code:

var Y = 1;

if (function F(){})

{

y += Typeof F;</span>

}

console.log(y);

1undefined will be the output. This is because the if condition statement will evaluate using ‘eval’ and hence, eval(function f(){}) will return function f(){} (true). So, inside this if statement, one would execute the typeof f which will return undefined since the if statement code is executed at run time. Thus, the statement present inside the if condition is going to be evaluated during the run time.

Q43. State the difference between Apply and Call?

The call() method helps to call a function which has a given ‘this’ value and the arguments which are individually provided. The syntax is:

fun.call(thisArg[, arg1[, arg2[, …]]])

The apply() method is used to call a function which has a given ‘this’ value but the arguments are presented as an array. The syntax is:

fun.apply(thisArg, [argsArray])

Q44.In JavaScript, how can you empty an Array?

There are a few methods to empty an array. They are:

Method 1:

arrayList = []

If you do not have any references to the original array arrayList, this method is recommended. However, if you have previously referenced this array from a different variable, then the original reference array will be kept unchanged.

Method 2:

arrayList.length = 0;

By using this code, you are setting the array length to 0 thus emptying it of all updates of reference variables, going back to the original array. 

Method 3:

arrayList.splice(0, arrayList.length);

This method can also be used to empty all the array including updates of all the references back to the original array.

Method 4:

while(arrayList.length)

{

arrayList.pop();

}

This is also a great way to empty arrays but it is not a recommended method.

Q45. What output will this code present:

var Output = (function(x)

{

Delete X;

return X;

}

)(0);

console.log(output);

Delete operator helps to delete the properties from an object. In this code, x is not used as an object but a local variable. Delete operators do not have any effect on local variables.

Q46. What output will this code present:

var X = { Foo : 1};

var Output = (function()

{

delete X.foo;

return X.foo;

}

)();

console.log(output);

Undefined output. Delete operator helps to delete the properties from an object. In this code, x is an object with the property used foo. This is a self-invoking function and hence, one would delete the property foo from x object. Hence, the result will be undefined.

Q47. What output will this code present:

var Employee =

{

company: ‘xyz’

}

var Emp1 = Object.create(employee);

delete Emp1.company Console.log(emp1.company);

Outcome = xyz. In this code, emp1 object uses company as its prototype property. Delete operator does not delete prototype property. The object emp1 does not have company as its property. It is possible to delete company property from the Employee object directly by using delete Employee.company.  

Q48. What output will this code present:

//nfe (named function expression)

var Foo = Function Bar()

{

return 7;

};

typeof Bar();

Output = Reference Error. The function definition can only have one reference variable as the function name.

Q49. Why is it common to wrap the content of JavaScript source file in a function book?

Many JavaScript libraries use this technique. It helps to develop a closure around the contents of the file which helps to create a private namespace and hence, avoid any name clash with different JavaScript modules and libraries. 

Q50. In JavaScript, what are escape characters?

Escape characters help you to write special characters without having to break the application. 

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Interview Preparation 

We have listed the most important Javascript coding questions and answers that may be of help. However, apart from the technical steps, you must also understand how to prepare for Javascript coding interview questions at a basic level because it all comes down to how confident you are about yourself and your knowledge –

  1. Be Thorough – You know that you are planning a career in Javascript, but when you face Javascript coding interview questions, you must be absolutely thorough with your concepts, beginner or experienced.
  • Know your level – If you are just starting out, you are not expected to know all the details about Javascript. If you are sitting for Javascript interview questions for experienced level, you are expected to know the system design thoroughly and how it can be used for solving major problems. Be aware of your capabilities and apply for a position that suits you.
  • Organization expectations: You must be aware of what the company requires of you. Various employers will require different skill sets. Some businesses place a greater emphasis than others on specific JavaScript technologies. Before applying, do extensive research on the company.
  • Refine your knowledge and skills: JavaScript is a complex language with numerous iterations and what appears to be infinite capabilities. However, not all of them will be examined during the interview. It’s crucial to comprehend what technical abilities are actually covered in typical Javascript coding questions and answers.

2. Create a To-Do list – Many people neglect to complete this phase, which leads to a disorganised preparation for Javascript interview questions for experienced as well as freshers. Making a strategy in advance makes you more motivated and guarantees that you cover what you need to. Typically, it takes three months to adequately prepare for Javascript coding interview questions.

There is a lot to cover, so avoid cramming anything in at the last minute. Make a plan at the beginning of the time allotted for this, and make sure there is plenty of it. This task list starts with reviewing the fundamentals before moving on to data structures and algorithms and, eventually, more advanced ideas. It’s crucial to not neglect the initial practice and refresh the beginner-level skills.

3. Be confident of yourself and your knowledge – A behavioural interview will be conducted in addition to the coding interview. Here, the recruiters get to understand you as an individual and determine whether your beliefs align with those of the company. These interviews are crucial when choosing an employee. Many applicants neglect to practice for behavioural interviews and concentrate only on their technical abilities. Even though behavioural interviews need less preparation time, they are still essential to your success and should be factored into your plans.

Conclusion

These are some popular javascript interview questions provided in varying difficulty to help you ace the interviews. Brushing up your basic and advanced knowledge of JavaScript using these javascript interview questions and answers are a great way to land a job as a developer in any top tech firm.

Some people prefer the artistic side of web development and some others prefer the technical one. But there’s a third group of people who know both. The first group is of front-end developers, the second one is of back-end developers, and the last one is of full-stack developers.

The demand for full-stack developers is on the rise. And companies are in desperate need of talented professionals who can work with both HTML and PHP. 

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Is JavaScript easy to learn?

JavaScript is considered to be one of the most widely used scripting languages. Learning JavaScript is difficult or easy depends very much on your prior experience in programming. It will take around 6-9 months if this is the first scripting language you are attempting to learn because you may face difficulty adjusting to the programming mindset. However, it won’t be challenging to learn JS if you already have decent programming experience.

Which is easier to learn- Python or JavaScript?

Python’s syntax is easy to get a hold of, due to which newbies prefer to start their programming journey with Python. If we talk about the syntax of JavaScript, it is pretty similar to that of C and C++. However, debugging can be quite a task while working in JavaScript, which is not the case with Python. If we look at the performance quality, undoubtedly, JS does better than Python. So, if you want to learn a scripting language after a bit of experience in programming, you can choose to learn JavaScript, but Python will be a wise choice for beginners.

Which is the most widely used Java framework?

Building up applications for enterprises or organizations can be tedious and complex. However, the development process can become much easier when using the Spring framework. Companies like Netflix, Amazon, etc., use the Spring framework. To answer the question, Spring is one of the most widely used Java frameworks because of its user-friendly features. Various Java applications use the core features of the Spring framework because it is user-friendly.

Which JavaScript is mostly used?

The most popular JavaScript application frameworks include React. It is a collection of JavaScript which is used to build user interfaces for web applications.

What is ES6 in JavaScript?

ES6 stands for ECMAScript6. It was created to standardise JavaScript.

What are the three types of JavaScript?

JavaScipt allows us to work with three primitive data types, known as- Numbers Strings of text Boolean Truth Values

What are the four advantages of JavaScript?

The four advantages of JavaScript are- Interoperability Speed Simple to use Rich interfaces

What are the four types of JavaScript operators?

The four types of JavaScript Operators are- Arithmetic Operators Logical Operators Special Operators Bitwise Operators

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