Java Vs C#: Differences Between Java and C#

You know it is an interesting discussion when one software is pit against another. It reminds us of how far we have progressed in the IT and software domain. And when the discussion is about programming languages, it becomes all the more fascinating.

In this article, we will be discussing Java and C#. If you are having difficulty figuring out which of the two you should select for your next project, this article might come handy.

We will be looking at the features, advantages, and limitations of both programming languages so you can make an informed decision. We will also take a look at the basic differences between C# and Java, so stay with us till the end.

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What Is Java? 

Java is one of the most popular general-purpose programming languages of today. When it was first released, it was called OAK and was used for the management of set-top boxes and other interactive television devices. However, OAK proved to be a failure.

In 1995, it underwent a major makeover under the supervision of Sun Microsystem’s James Gosling and was relaunched as Java.

In 2009, Oracle Corporation took over Sun Microsystems and the acquisition included Java and Solaris. Over the years, Java has evolved with the changing development sphere to become one of the most widely used programming languages out there.

Part of Java’s success is owed to the principle it works on – “write one, run anywhere” – which makes it platform-independent. Java’s bytecode is compatible with any Java Virtual Machine with help from JRE.

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This is not dependent on the architecture or operating system.

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Features Of Java

  1. It is a class-based, object-oriented, general purpose, programming language used in web development.
  2. It is network-centric and multi-platform which implies it has in-built compatibility with multiple operating systems.
  3. It is a dynamic language that is easy to use and has a simple syntax.
  4. Java is highly robust and supports garbage collection. This allows better memory management.
  5. It also has built-in Exception Handling.
  6. Java is known for its security and stability
  7. Being an OOP language, it supports the various object-oriented programming concepts like inheritance, abstraction, polymorphism, and encapsulation.
  8. Java is capable of creating high-level, dynamic applications  and finds extensive use in building embedded systems. Smartphones, home security devices, and plenty other daily-use systems are built using Java.
  9. Java supports threading and multithreading, which essentially means it allows multiple tasks to run simultaneously without any interference. Even though the threads run on shared memory, one thread execution is independent of another. This is a clever approach to multitasking.
  10. Java is an interpreted language and is known for its high performance.

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What Is C# ?

C#, or C Sharp, is a multi-platform, object-oriented programming language that was launched by Microsoft. It is designed by Andres Hejlsberg and runs on the.

NET framework. The name C# has musical connotations but it is interesting to note that prior to its release in 2000, it was called Cool (C-Object Oriented Language). Its core features include simplicity, portability, and reliability.

C# is a derived language with instances from both C++ and Java. There is ample support for internationalization. C# it finds varied applications in many embedded systems and operating systems. Learn more about C# project ideas. 

Features Of C#

  1. C# is written for Common Language Infrastructure or CLI. It is one of the few languages that offer this.
  2. It is a strongly typed, component-oriented language
  3. Its memory management is based on garbage collection which is a marker of efficiency and flexibility in programming.
  4. C# can be integrated with different platforms.
  5. C# doesn’t support use of pointers. There are also several differences in syntax when compared to C++.
  6. C++ is a powerful, object-oriented, generic language that supports inheritance, polymorphism, abstraction, and other OOP concepts.
  7. C# supports interoperability. Being a Microsoft product, there is native support for Windows applications.
  8. C# provides a standard library for writing easier codes.
  9. It also supports multithreading like Java.

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Differences Between C# And Java

Listed below are the various differences between Java and C#.


Java is designed to run on Java Virtual Machine and does so with help from Java Runtime Environment (JRE).

C# is one of the few languages that supports the Common Language Runtime (CLR).

Operator Overloading

Java is not designed for operator overloading.

C# supports operator overloading with multiple operators.


There is no support for pointers in Java programming.

C# allows pointers in its code but this is only possible in the unsafe mode.


Arrays function as a direct specialization of the Object in Java

C# arrays are a specialization of the system.


You need to install JDK on your system in order to use Java

The .Net framework must be present on a machine so C# can access libraries.


Java is cross-platform, flexible and can be run on any platform. It is also known for its high-performance and efficiency.

C# is efficient in it’s own right but it doesn’t match Java’s performance and speed.


You can develop complex web applications using Java. It is also a great option for embedded systems.

C# is better suited for game development.


Since Java is an open-source platform, there are constant developments and updates being made to the language by its developer community.

Updates in C# happen at Microsoft’s behest this limits the language’s functionality and compatibility with other softwares.

Also Read:  Java Vs C++

Similarities Between C# And Java

In this section, we will summarise the features that are common in both C# and Java.

Smooth Transitioning

Both C# and Java have features of  both low-level languages and high-level languages. This makes transitioning from one to another quite simple.

Easy Readability 

Since both C# and Java codes can be compiled for virtual machines, and the language syntax is very easy to understand.

Typecasting And Garbage Collection 

Typecasting is not possible in either language. Support for garbage collection allows C# and Java to manage memory better.


Java and C# codes are not redundant since there is support for single inheritance only. This avoids clutter in code writing.

C# Vs Java: Advantages And Disadvantages

Advantages Of Java

  1. Users of Java benefit from the detailed documentation of offers when it comes to  integration with tools and plugins.
  2. It has an active community of qualified developers to bring out constant upgrades in the language.
  3. Java provides a great environment for multitasking with its multithreading feature.
  4. Java is exceptional high-performance and allows easy navigation.
  5. Code reusability is a huge plus for developers who are keen on saving time and effort.
  6. Java offers seamless compatibility with third party libraries.

Disadvantages Of Java

  1. JIT compiler slows down the program.
  2. It is not very cost effective.
  3. It doesn’t offer support for pointers.
  4. Automated garbage collection takes away control from the programmer and there are no functions to control it.

Advantages Of C#

  1. It supports the use of Lambda and LINQ, and allows easy easy methods for extension.
  2. Since it is Microsoft’s product, you can expect high efficiency working in the Windows ecosystem.
  3. Like Java, it supports automatic garbage collection resulting in optimised memory management.
  4. There is support for multitasking with multithreading.

Disadvantages Of C#

  1. It requires a Windows platform to run.
  2. It isn’t as flexible as Java which is cross-platform

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Java Vs C#: Which Should You Choose? 

Even though your ultimate decision should be based on your requirement, usability and the platform, you would be working on, this may just be one of those instances where we might actually pick one language among the two.

Java has an edge over C# because of its unmatched cross-platform efficiency, flexibility and open-source nature. It would allow developers an uninterrupted experience and give them more freedom to write code.

For these reasons alone, Java is the better option among the two.

However, if you are keen on working in the Microsoft ecosystem, you should go for C# for a high-level development experience.

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What is the salary of a C# developer?

C# is one of the in-demand programming languages of the current time. Due to its noteworthy features, such as interoperability and multithreading, it is widely used for web applications and enterprise software. The popularity of C# developers is increasing at an increasing rate. It was ranked the fifth most popular language in Tiobe’s ranking. This sudden increase has also brought about increased employment opportunities for C# developers. A developer with 1-4 years of experience has an average salary of INR 5.4 lpa, while a developer with 5-9 years of experience earns about INR 7.5 lpa. The compensation may vary due to other factors such as job location, type of company, and the company's market capitalisation, to name a few.

What is the difference between overloading and overriding in Java?

The case of overloading occurs when two or more methods in one class have the same name but different parameters. On the contrary, overriding is said to have happened if the two methods have the same name as well as the same parameters. Overriding occurs between different classes, while overloading occurs between the same class methods. Also, overloading is performed within the class, while method overriding occurs in two classes with inheritance relationships. Overloading is known as compile-time polymorphism while overriding is known as runtime polymorphism.

What is the immutability feature of Java?

Java is one of the oldest and most widely used programming languages. It has a wide range of applications from mobile development, gaming applications, cloud-based applications, to name a few. The many useful features of Java are behind its popularity. One of such well-known features of Java is immutability. Immutability means that once the string object is created, it cannot be modified or changed. This feature has a lot of advantages. A string thread becomes safe when it is immutable, and hence there is no chance that it would be tampered with when shared across multiple threads.

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