Harnessing Data: An Introduction to Data Collection [Types, Methods, Steps & Challenges]

Data opens up the doors to a world of knowledge and information. As the currency of the information revolution, it has played a transformational role in today’s world. Data can help you predict the future, identify patterns and correlations, get actionable insights, resolve complex problems, and much more! 

Now you, too, can harvest the benefits of data with the power of data collection. From the natural and social sciences to business management, data collection has unveiled new knowledge and answers through data gathering and analysis.

Are you intrigued to know more about what is data collection? You have come to the right starting point! Read on to learn more about what is data collection in research, types of data collection and more!

What is Data Collection?

Data collection is the systematic process of gathering, measuring, and analysing accurate and appropriate data from various sources to answer specific questions or objectives. It builds the foundation that helps in decision-making and strategic planning, gaining valuable business insights, forecasting future trends, assessing outcomes, and so much more. Data collection can help answer the why, what, when, and how questions by funnelling data into organised insights. 

Think of it this way: before buying a house, you gather as much information as possible regarding the housing market, price rates, neighbourhood, quality of construction, utilities, etcetera. You commit to buying a house only when you have all the information. It is an informed decision you made based on the data you gathered. 

Likewise, businesses, governments, academics, and researchers need to collect accurate and relevant data before deciding or drawing a conclusion. Data collection stops you from diving headlong into a decision based on guesswork and making avoidable mistakes. 

Now that you know what is data collection in research, let’s look at the types of data collection.

Types of Data Collection

Before you can even begin collecting data, you must decide what kind of data you want. Do you want to collect the data yourself or use already available data? Do you want to ask open-ended questions or administer multiple-choice questions?

Your decision to go forward with a specific data collection method will impact the reliability and effectiveness of your analysis. So, let your objectives and questions guide your decision since each data type has its benefits and drawbacks. 

Let’s explore the different types of data collection:

1. Primary data collection method

You must be wondering, “What is primary data in research?” Simply put, primary data is the first-hand data that you, as the researcher, will collect directly from the source. The researcher is the first person who reads, interacts with and analyses the data. Since the data is gathered directly by the researcher, it is bound to be more accurate, original, and reliable. However, the pitfall of this method is that it’s time-consuming and expensive. 

2. Secondary data collection method

What happens if you can’t collect the data you need yourself? You rely on secondary data- already available or second-hand information. This type of data has been collected, analysed and organised by another party in the form of journal articles, books, government documents, websites, diaries, etc. Since the data is already out there, it is less time-consuming and more economical than the primary data collection method. However, one can’t ever be sure how accurate, reliable, and authentic the data is. 

3. Quantitative data collection method

When you can quantify or use numbers and percentages to express your data, it is quantitative data. This type of data can be quantified, whether it is the average height of a specific population or preference for different brands. After collecting the data, the researcher uses statistical and mathematical tools to analyse the data and draw a conclusion. Quantitative data is easier and more economical to collect and easier to measure. However, it can miss out on nuances of descriptive data.

Learn data science courses online from the World’s top Universities. Earn Executive PG Programs, Advanced Certificate Programs, or Masters Programs to fast-track your career.

4. Qualitative data collection method

To understand people’s attitudes, behaviour, opinions, and experiences, you need more than one-word answers. Data that is descriptive and cannot be quantified is qualitative. Interviews, observation, and open-ended questionnaires can help gather qualitative data. However, it is less concrete and more expensive and time-consuming to collect than quantitative data.

Methods of Data Collection

Just as there are different data types, there are also several data collection methods. Deciding which method is advantageous for your research objectives requires careful consideration. 

Here are the most popular methods of data collection.

1. Interviews or Focus groups

One of the most popular data collection methods is interviews, where the interviewer asks questions to a respondent to gain an in-depth understanding of a subject or issue. When the interviewer engages with a group of people, it is a focus group. The interview may be in person, over the phone, or online. The interviews may be structured, semi-structured or unstructured, depending on how rigid the questions and pattern of questioning are. 

2. Questionnaires or Surveys

In this method, the respondents read and respond to a fixed set of questions. The questions may be sent through postal mail, online, or administered in person. They can include closed or open-ended questions depending on the type of information you want. 

3. Observation

Sometimes the best method to gather data is by witnessing people or a phenomenon in real-time and first-hand, often in their natural setting. It allows the researcher to observe and examine aspects and collect information without depending on other people’s accounts of the subject or issue. Rather the researcher’s senses and observational skills are the most important. 

Read our popular Data Science Articles

4. Document review

When access to a specific population or scope of research and resources is limited, using secondary data is the best approach. Accessing information and data through online and offline public or personal resources, like government documents and reports, diaries, letters, and newspapers, can be critical in gaining valuable insight. 

Check out our free data science courses to get an edge over the competition.

4. Social media monitoring

Social media has become a virtual gathering place and space of expression for people. By monitoring social media, researchers can gain quantitative and qualitative insight into how people feel, think about various issues and interact in the information age.

Steps of Data Collection

At the centre of understanding what is data collection involves knowing the process or the steps involved in gathering information. 

Take a look at the crucial steps involved in data collection:

1. Determining the data you want

The first step lays the foundation for data collection- deciding what data you want to gather. Here you must consider your research questions or objectives, the resources available, the volume of information you want, and the sources you seek information from. 

2. Developing a timeline

A timeline is essential to ensure the project stays on track, is relevant and efficiently utilises available resources. Different types of research and each step of the process require their timeframes. The timeframe of data collection may affect the data you collect, for example, the opinion of voters regarding specific parties or politicians. 

3. Deciding the method of data collection

What method works best for the information you want to collect? Determining the method of data collection should depend on your research goals, population size, timeframe, resources, and other parameters. For example, if you want to know how people feel about a brand, the survey method may work best to gather information from a large group. 

4. Begin collecting data

Once you have developed the plan, it’s time to bring it to fruition. Implementing the strategy effectively at the data collection stage is integral. Make sure to continuously assess that you are on the right track in terms of time and quality of data. Being flexible with the plan is important as you may need to amend it due to the conditions of the field and data. 

Explore our Popular Data Science Courses

4. Analysing the data

Once you have all the data you want, you can begin organising and analysing it. Unprocessed raw data is converted to intelligible and insightful information to help decision-making. The very point of data collection is to offer valuable and actionable insights. The stage of analysis does just that!

Challenges in Data Collection

Several issues can crop up during data collection, but you can overcome them if you are strategic in your planning. 

Here are some of the most common challenges:

  1. Poor data quality is a major problem that may arise due to duplicate data, inaccurate data and sampling, incorrect method selection, and more.
  2. Drawing on different sources or methods may lead to gathering inconsistent data.
  3. A low response rate or problematic sampling can derail analysis and lead to wrong conclusions.
  4. Irrelevant data can compromise the validity and reliability of the study. 
  5. Dealing with Big Data presents formidable challenges to data collection and analysis.
  6. Untrained researchers are a significant hurdle to the process due to their bias and prejudices, inability to use the methods correctly, follow procedures, use analytical tools, etc. 


The might of data has become very clear to mankind. The systematic process behind gathering and analysing all this data so it becomes intelligible is always hidden behind the scenes. But understanding it is critical to ensuring the reliability and validity of data. Today, with the help of Data Science, we can harness the power of data to scale new heights!

Top Data Science Skills to Learn

upGrad is here to boost you along the ladder of success!

With the aid of master classes, industry sessions, mentorship sessions, Python Programming Bootcamp, and live learning sessions, upGrad’s Master of Science in Data Science is a course designed for professionals to gain an edge over competitors. 

Offered under the guidance of the University of Arizona, this course boosts your data science career with a cutting-edge curriculum, immersive learning experience with industry experts and job opportunities.

What are the benefits of data collection?

Here are some of the benefits of data collection: it helps in decision-making, understanding customer behaviour and retention, problem-solving, identifying issues before they arise, reducing errors, identifying patterns and relationships, and developing policies.

What is mixed methods research?

Mixed methods research is when both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods are used to answer the research questions and goals. It strengthens the quality of data.

What is sampling in data collection?

Sampling is the process through which a subset of individuals is selected from a population for data collection in research.

Want to share this article?

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Our Popular Data Science Course

Get Free Consultation

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Get Free career counselling from upGrad experts!
Book a session with an industry professional today!
No Thanks
Let's do it
Get Free career counselling from upGrad experts!
Book a Session with an industry professional today!
Let's do it
No Thanks