The Django is one of the easiest and efficient web application frameworks that is written in the Python language. This framework is free and open-source and hence majorly replaced the use of PHP, servlets, etc. to develop the backend of any website. It was developed by Django Software Foundation on 15th July 2005.
Django provides an unbeatable advantage of the ease of creation of databases for the developers working on complex web development frameworks. On top of this, Django provides one of the fastest data flows and also makes sure that security is not compromised.
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Django’s architecture primarily follows the MVT framework, as explained below.
- M: Model
- V: View
- T: Template
MVT can be seen as an alternative of the MVC framework which consists of a Model, View, and Controller. The major contrast between MVT and MVC is that the Django architecture takes care of the responsibilities handled by the MVC architecture’s controller part. Django utilises its templates to perform all the controller associated tasks.In simpler words, the template contains contents that are an amalgam of Django Template Language (also known as DTL) and HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language ).
The Template, as introduced above, is responsible for all the UI related actions and customisations along with the architecture related activities of an application. Underlying the template, we have “View”. The view takes command of the logical processing and decision making activities of the application and also communicates with the “Model” to fetch the respective data points and accordingly change the template as per requirement.
As discussed above, Django itself acts as a controller that fetches a URL that is connected to the view part of the application and eventually sends the respective user responses to the application. This is the overall interaction that happens within the Django MVT architecture.
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In Django, the model plays an important role of linking the whole architecture to the database. In this whole process, each and every model is connected to a single table within the database. The methods and fields associated with this process are declared in a separate file generally defined as models.py.
Once the linking process is done and everything is connected to the database, we will be able to assess every row or to be more precise, record from the respective table and can even perform different DML operations accordingly on the table.
Django.db.models is the subclass that is being utilised in this case. We can use Python’s default import function as “from django.db import models”.
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Post defining our database columns, tables, and records, we will be fetching the data that is connected to the application by mentioning the mapping in settings.py.
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The overall logic of the data flow framework is defined in this part of the model. The whole code is defined in the views.py file.
Another task of the view file is to send the responses to the respective user whenever the application is used. In layman terms, we can simply assert that the view.py is capable of handling the HttpResponse.
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When a view file is created, the next question that comes to our minds is how to link this file to our application? How do we make sure that the framework will understand when to display a particular view? This understanding can be established by mapping the views.py in a separate urls.py file. As we discussed above, urls.py is responsible for keeping a track of all the distinct pages and hence map each of them.
Whenever we want to create a dynamic website for complex operations or functions, templates help us achieve that in an easy manner. In simpler words, the dynamic website sends and receives dynamic or changing data. Dynamic data is usually associated with a scenario where every user is presented with his or her own personalised data. For example, posts in social media websites like Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, etc. or different transactions in fintech products, etc.
The template is set up in the settings.py file which is under INSTALLED_APPS. Hence the python code will simply search for the associated files under the template subdirectory. There are 2 options to do that— either we can generate an HTML file or simply import a dynamic web page via the browser and save it in the respective template folder.
Now to get a response, we will link this file in urls.py and views.py. After all the linkage process is complete, we can get our website up and running.
Along these lines, this is how Django works. The main Python records are utilised to interface with one another to show our page are settings.py, view.py, and urls.py
When we characterise our rationale here individually we can have a work process connecting the database, taking client data sources and reactions and show dynamic pages. If you want to dive deeper in Django, have a look at the documentation and comprehend the connection between them.
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Also Read: Python Django Project Ideas
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What are MVT and MVC architectures?
The main distinction between MVC (Model View Controller) and MVT (Model View Template) architectures is that we need to write all the code specific to the controller in the former one. But in the case of MVT, the controller code is handled by the framework itself. For instance, in the case of the Django application, which is based on MVT architecture, we do not need to write code for fetching data from the underlying database and then map it to the URL. These tasks are taken care of automatically by the framework. MVC architecture is especially suitable for developing large applications, while MVT is more suited for smaller to large-scale programs.
Do you need to know Python to learn Django?
Since the Django framework is based on Python, you need to be familiar with this programming language to understand Django comfortably. That said, it is not essential for you to be an expert in Python to learn Django. Understanding the basic concepts of Python should be sufficient for you to start grasping the fundamentals of Django. It can be tough to start learning Django if you have no idea of the Python programming language, especially its object-oriented concepts such as classes and knowledge of programming. Knowing Python will help you pick up the intricacies of Django efficiently, making the overall learning duration shorter.
Why is Django used for web development?
Django is a hugely popular web-based framework built using Python, which supports rapid and streamlined development of secure and easily maintainable websites and web-based applications. This framework is highly popular because it simplifies and reduces much of the hassles involved in web development projects, thereby allowing developers to focus on core coding activities without having to write code from scratch for standard functionalities. It comes with specific pre-built modules which developers can reuse for faster development of projects. Moreover, Django also takes care of security concerns, which results in robust and secure websites and apps.