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Data Science Roadmap for 2024 & Beyond

Introduction: Data Science Roadmap for 2024

To become a data scientist, you must thoroughly grasp the theories and concepts of statistics, mathematics, and programming languages. The roadmap of data science begins with mastering the essential skills for analysing big data and extracting valuable insights from the data. Further along in the roadmap to data science lies data engineering, which involves developing ETL pipelines using advanced computer programming languages. 

If you want to navigate the data science roadmap 2024, sign up for the Executive DBA programme in Data Science from SSBM. Read on to learn more about how you can become a data scientist.

Essential Skills for a Data Scientist

The roadmap to become a data scientist dictates one to master the following skills:

Mathematics

Multivariable calculus, linear algebra, and optimisation techniques are the three pillars of data science. Mastering these mathematical concepts is essential for understanding machine learning concepts. It is also necessary to understand statistics and probability.

Domain knowledge

Domain knowledge is crucial for steering the data scientist roadmap (2024). For example, if you aspire to be a data scientist in healthcare, you must be an expert in healthcare facilities and models. 

Computer science

A thorough understanding of programming languages, data structure, SQL, machine learning, distributed computing, deep learning, Git, Linux, and MongoDB is critical for becoming a data scientist. 

Communication skill

A data scientist must eloquently communicate their ideas and innovations to their team members and supervisors. Moreover, data scientists also need to communicate their data findings effectively, so being skilled at communication is extremely important.

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Core Concepts of Data Science

Data Collection and Preparation

Data science involves the continuous capture of big data. The big data is collected and stored in data warehouses. The data wrangling process then cleans the raw big data to extract relevant information. Further, the cleaned data is put in order by applying data sorting techniques to prepare it for more analysis.

Data Exploration and Visualisation

Data scientists extract hidden patterns and trends from big data by applying Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) techniques. The extracted patterns and trends allow business organisations to make accurate data-driven decisions. EDA of big data is only complete with the visualisation of the data in graphs and charts

Machine Learning and Deep Learning

In machine learning, the machine learns from historical data and develops a prediction model accordingly. The machine then uses the prediction model to forecast output whenever a new dataset is provided. 

Deep learning is a machine learning segment that studies neural networks of multiple layers. The neural network makes a machine simulate the human brain. If you are interested in learning machine and deep learning algorithms, you can enrol in the Graduate Certificate Programme in Data Science from upGrad

Supervised Learning Algorithms and Techniques

Supervised learning algorithms enable the learning of patterns in big data in consideration of the target variables. In supervised learning, machines are trained with input and output data sets for the correct data prediction by mapping the input data to the output data. Supervised learning algorithms include classification and regression techniques

Unsupervised Learning Algorithms and Techniques

Unsupervised machine learning involves training models with unlabelled datasets, following which the machines operate on the data without supervision. The objective of unsupervised machine learning is to detect the underlying structures of the datasets, group the data based on similarities and represent the grouped data in a compressed form. 

Unsupervised machine learning techniques include K-means clustering, hierarchical clustering, neural networks, and apriori algorithms.

Big Data and Cloud Computing

Big data comprises exabytes and petabytes of data. The attributes of big data include volume, velocity, variety, and variability. Due to its complex nature, big data requires advanced business intelligence technologies and tools such as machine learning, Spark, and Hadoop for processing and analysis. 

Data scientists gather, process, clean, and extract insights from complex and voluminous datasets. The extracted insights help in improving decision-making and business operation.

Cloud computing employs web-based technologies to store, manage, and access data online. The cloud operates in a shared computing environment. Cloud computing ensures high scalability and enables multiple users to access data using their web browsers with the help of off-site cloud computing infrastructure.

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Data Science Tools and Technologies

The multidisciplinary field of data science relies on a variety of technologies and tools, as listed below:

  • Programming languages like SQL, R, and Python
  • Data visualisation technologies, including Power BI, Tableau, and Matplotlib
  • Machine learning tools such as Keras, TensorFlow, and Scikit-learn
  • Platforms of cloud computing such as Azure, Google Cloud, and AWS
  • Database Management Systems like MongoDB, MySQL, and PostgreSQL

Data Science Applications in Different Industries

Numerous applications of data science exist in different industries:

Speech recognition and image recognition

Data science is the backbone of image and speech recognition technologies. Tagging people on social media based on image recognition is powered by data science. Similarly, Siri, Ok Google, and Cortana, which respond to voice control, are based on speech recognition driven by data science.

Healthcare

In healthcare, data science is extensively used to analyse medical images, detect cancerous tumours, and develop new drugs. Data science is also extensively used in creating virtual healthcare bots that provide treatment to patients.

Transport

The transport sector uses data science for the operation of self-driving cars. Engineers also use data science for optimising shipping routes dynamically.

Government

Legislative bodies use data science applications to forecast incarceration rates and prevent evasion of taxes.

Gaming

Sony, EA Sports, and Nintendo are some gaming companies that employ data science to enhance the gaming experience for users.

Finance

Banks and other financial institutions use data science applications to assess risks and liabilities. Data science also helps in dealing with financial fraudulence. Financial institutions use data science to create clients’ financial profiles and credit reports.

Top Data Science Skills to Learn

Time Series Analysis and Forecasting

Time Series Data Analysis with data science refers to assessing the characteristic traits of response variables with regard to time, in which time is an independent variable. Time Series Analysis employs data science to analyse a series of data points collected for a period. 

The data points are analysed at regular intervals. The analysis reveals how different variables change in value over time. Organisations use time series analysis to comprehend the underlying trends and systemic patterns and forecast the probability of future events.

Future of Data Science: Trends and Predictions

The ultimate objective of the dynamic data science roadmap is to prepare data for analysis. Predictive analytics, machine learning, artificial intelligence, blockchain technology, and quantum computing are the latest trends in data science. Some more upcoming trends are:

  • The rising popularity of cloud migration
  • Cloud-native solutions becoming commonplace
  • Improved data regulation
  • Widespread application of predictive analysis
  • Enhanced consumer interfaces 

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Data Science Ethics and Best Practices

Data science has a significant influence on the way organisations conduct their business. As such, its ethical implications must be considered. 

A data scientist must adhere to the ethics and guidelines of data science, as described below:

1. Ownership

The prime principle of data science ethics is ownership of data. It is illegal to collect and store personal data of an entity without consent. Consent can be obtained from the owner through a written agreement.

2. Privacy

Even after obtaining consent from the owner, maintaining strict privacy of the owner’s data is of the utmost importance. For example, there should be no disclosure of the personally identifiable data of the owner to third parties who do not have the owner’s consent to handle the data.

3. Transparency

It is essential to ensure transparency while handling the data of the owner. The owner must be informed about any data collection, storage, and use policy.

4. Intentions

It is important to note why the data is collected and processed for analysis. If the intention of collecting and analysing data is malicious, it would be considered unethical and unlawful.

5. Outcomes

The outcome is an integral part of the ethical considerations of data science. Data analysts need to ensure that the data analysis report does not inflict inadvertent harm on any individual or community.

Conclusion

Organisations are capitalising on data science to handle big data regardless of the sector. Every company employs data science to enhance customer satisfaction, from banking institutions to OTT platforms. Data science has revolutionised every industrial sector and will continue in the coming years. Follow the roadmap to become a data scientist by pursuing the Executive PG Programme in Data Science & Machine Learning from the University of Maryland.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is ‘boosting’ in data science?

In data science, boosting is performed to strengthen predictive models that are weak or inaccurate.

What career options does a data scientist have?

An aspiring data science professional can apply for the roles of data scientist, data engineer, data architect, enterprise architect, machine learning engineer, business intelligence analyst, database administrator, and statistical analyst in tech firms.

Which programming language is preferred for data analysis in data science- Python or R?

While both Python and R are equally preferred for data analysis, Python is used for analysing vast volumes of data, while R is more suited for analysing unstructured data.

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