Artificial Intelligence has come a long way from being a component of science fiction to reality. Today, we have a host of intelligent machines like self-driving cars, smart virtual assistants, chatbots, and surgical robots, to name a few. Since AI became a mainstream technology in the present industry and a part of the common man’s daily life, it has sparked a debate – Artificial Intelligence vs. Human Intelligence.
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While Artificial Intelligence seeks to design and create intelligent machines that can perform human-like tasks, one cannot help but think, “Is Artificial Intelligence sufficient in itself?”
Perhaps the biggest fear is that AI will “replace” humans and outsmart them in a few years. However, it is not entirely true. Although AI is highly advanced – now that machines can learn from experience and make smart decisions – AI cannot function optimally without relying on innately human attributes like human intuition.
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Now, let’s dig deeper into the Artificial Intelligence vs. Human Intelligence debate to understand their peculiarities and relationship.
Artificial Intelligence vs. Human Intelligence: Definition
What is Artificial Intelligence?
Artificial Intelligence is a branch of Data Science that focuses on building smart machines capable of performing a wide range of tasks that usually require human intelligence and cognition. These intelligent machines are imbued with learning from experience and historical data, analyzing their surrounding environments, and performing the befitting actions.
AI is an interdisciplinary science that leverages concepts and tools from multiple fields like computer science, cognitive science, linguistics, psychology, neuroscience, and mathematics.
What is Human Intelligence?
Human Intelligence refers to humans’ intellectual capability that allows us to think, learn from different experiences, understand complex concepts, apply logic and reason, solve mathematical problems, recognize patterns, make inferences and decisions, retain information, and communicate with fellow human beings.
What makes human intelligence unique is that it is backed by abstract emotions like self-awareness, passion, and motivation that enable humans to accomplish complex cognitive tasks.
Artificial Intelligence vs. Human Intelligence: A comparison
Here’s a head to head comparison between Artificial Intelligence and Human Intelligence:
While Human Intelligence aims to adapt to new environments by utilizing a combination of different cognitive processes, Artificial Intelligence aims to build machines that can mimic human behavior and perform human-like actions. The human brain is analogous, but machines are digital.
Humans use the brain’s computing power, memory, and ability to think, whereas AI-powered machines rely on data and specific instructions fed into the system.
Human Intelligence is all about learning from various incidents and past experiences. It is about learning from mistakes made via trial and error approach throughout one’s life. Intelligent thought and intelligent behavior lie at the core of Human Intelligence. However, Artificial Intelligence falls behind in this respect – machines cannot think.
They can learn from data and through continuous training, but they can never achieve the thought process unique to humans. While AI-powered systems can perform specific tasks quite well, it can take years for them to learn a completely different set of functions for a new application area.
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What AI cannot do without – The “human” factor
Artificial Intelligence vs. Human Intelligence debate isn’t a fair one. Granted that AI has helped develop intelligent machines that can outperform humans in some respects (case in point – AlphaGo and DeepBlue), they have yet to go a very long way to match the human brain’s potential. Although AI systems are designed and trained to mimic and simulate human behavior, they cannot make rational decisions like humans.
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The decision-making power of AI systems is primarily based on events, the data they’re trained on, and how they are related to a particular event. AI machines cannot understand the concept of “cause and effect” simply because they lack common sense. Nick Burns, an SQL Services Data Scientist, puts it quite well: “No matter how good your models are, they are only as good as your data…”
Humans possess the unique ability to learn and apply their acquired knowledge in combination with logic, reasoning, and understanding. Real-world scenarios require a holistic, logical, rational, and emotional approach that is specific to humans.
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Artificial Intelligence vs. Human Intelligence: What will the future hold?
Right now, AI is still developing and advancing. The time required to train AI systems is considerably high, which isn’t possible without human intervention. Be it autonomous cars and robots, or sophisticated technologies like natural language processing and image processing, they all rely on human intelligence.
Presently, automation is the leading AI application that’s penetrating the industry rapidly. In a 2018 report by the WEF, the Swiss Think Tank predicted that by 2022, AI would displace 75 million jobs globally while also creating 133 million new jobs. The new job profiles will demand Data Science specific skills like knowledge of Mathematics & Statistics and ML algorithms, proficiency in programming, data mining, data wrangling, software engineering, and data visualization.
Today, companies using Big Data and Data Science technologies are skilled experts like ML Engineers, Data Scientists, Data Engineers, etc., who know the nitty-gritty of AI/ML. It is the domain knowledge and versatile skillset of such experts that create value out of Big Data.
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AI is an invaluable tool shaping the industry, and automation, coupled with intelligent workflow, will be the norm across all sectors in the near future. And while AI has mastered intelligent behaviour quite well, it cannot mimic a human’s thought process.
Since scientists and researchers still don’t know the mystery behind the human thought process, it is highly unlikely that we’ll create machines that can “think” like humans anytime soon. To conclude, the future of AI will be governed mainly by human abilities. It will be complemented by human intelligence and cognizance.
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What AI cannot do without – The ‘human’ factor?
While AI has aided in the development of intelligent robots that can surpass humans in some areas (for example, AlphaGo and DeepBlue), they have a long way to go before they can equal the human brain's potential. Despite the fact that AI systems are developed and educated to replicate and simulate human behavior, they are incapable of making reasonable decisions. The ability of AI systems to make decisions is mostly predicated on events, the data they've been trained on, and how they're tied to a certain occurrence. Because AI computers lack common sense, they are unable to comprehend the concept of 'cause and effect.'
What is the future of artificial intelligence?
AI is still in its early stages of development. Training AI systems takes a long period, which is impossible to achieve without human assistance. Whether it's self-driving cars and robots, or advanced technologies like nlp and image analysis, everything relies on human intelligence. Currently, automation is the most popular AI application that is rapidly gaining traction in the market. AI is expected to displace 75 million jobs globally by 2022, while also creating 133 million new jobs.
What are the main differences between artificial intelligence and human intelligence?
Artificial Intelligence tries to create computers that can replicate human behavior and do human-like tasks, whereas Human Intelligence aims to adapt to new surroundings by combining various cognitive processes. Machines are digital, whereas the human brain is analogue. The brain's computational capacity, memory, and ability to reason are used by humans, but AI-powered computers rely on data and particular instructions provided into the system. Learning from numerous occurrences and past experiences is at the heart of human intelligence. It's all about learning from one's blunders through trial and error throughout one's life. Artificial Intelligence, on the other hand, falls short in this regard - robots cannot reason.